Economic and monetary union
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An economic and monetary union is a type of trade bloc which is composed of an economic union (common market and customs union) with a monetary union. It is to be distinguished from a mere monetary union (e.g. the Latin Monetary Union in the 19th century), which does not involve a common market. This is the sixth stage of economic integration. EMU is established through a currency-related trade pact. An intermediate step between pure EMU and a complete economic integration is the fiscal union.
List of economic and monetary unions
- Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union (1999/2002) with the Euro for the Eurozone members
- de facto the OECS Eastern Caribbean Currency Union with the East Caribbean dollar in the CSME (2006)
- de facto Switzerland–Liechtenstein
Additionally the autonomous and dependent territories, such as some of the EU member state special territories, are sometimes treated as separate customs territory from their mainland state or have varying arrangements of formal or de facto customs union, common market and currency union (or combinations thereof) with the mainland and in regards to third countries through the trade pacts signed by the mainland state.
- North American Union and North American Currency Union (Amero)
- Pacific Union (one proposal for Australian dollar)
- The states participating in both initiatives are Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.
- Single market through participation in the internal market of the European Union, customs union since 1924, informal currency union since 1920.
- EU Overseas countries and some other territories participate partially in the EU single market per part four of the Treaty Establishing the European Community; Some EU Outermost regions and other territories use the Euro of the currency union, others are part of the customs union; some participate in both unions and some in neither.
Territories of the United States, Australian External Territories and Realm of New Zealand territories share the currency and mostly also the market of their respective mainland state, but are generally not part of its customs territory.
- Proposed by Ecuador's President Rafael Correa on December 15, 2007
- Not currently on any political agenda, based mostly off conspiracy theories.
- Acocella, N. and Di Bartolomeo, G. and Tirelli, P. , ‘Fiscal leadership and coordination in the EMU’, in: ‘Open Economies Review’, 18(3): 281-9.
- Bergin, Paul (2008). "Monetary Union". In David R. Henderson (ed.). Concise Encyclopedia of Economics (2nd ed.). Indianapolis: Library of Economics and Liberty. ISBN 978-0865976658. OCLC 237794267.
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- Argentina plans monetary union
- Quadrant Magazine article on the Pacific
- Economist – Antipodean currencies (Australia and New Zealand)
- Three Perspectives on an Australasian Monetary Union
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- OECD Development Centre – the Rand Zone
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