# Flatness (mathematics)

In mathematics, the **flatness** (symbol: **⏥**) of a surface is the degree to which it approximates a mathematical plane. The term is often generalized for higher-dimensional manifolds to describe the degree to which they approximate the Euclidean space of the same dimensionality. (See *curvature*.)[1]

**Flatness** in homological algebra and algebraic geometry means, of an object in an abelian category, that is an exact functor. See flat module or, for more generality, flat morphism.[2]

## Character encodings

Preview | ⏥ | |
---|---|---|

Unicode name | FLATNESS | |

Encodings | decimal | hex |

Unicode | 9189 | U+23E5 |

UTF-8 | 226 143 165 | E2 8F A5 |

Numeric character reference | ⏥ | ⏥ |

## References

- Committee 117, A. C. I. (November 3, 2006).
*Specifications for Tolerances for Concrete Construction and Materials and Commentary*. American Concrete Institute. ISBN 9780870312212 – via Google Books. - Ballast, David Kent (March 16, 2007).
*Handbook of Construction Tolerances*. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9780471931515 – via Google Books.

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