Flatness (mathematics)

In mathematics, the flatness (symbol: ) of a surface is the degree to which it approximates a mathematical plane. The term is often generalized for higher-dimensional manifolds to describe the degree to which they approximate the Euclidean space of the same dimensionality. (See curvature.)[1]

Flatness in homological algebra and algebraic geometry means, of an object in an abelian category, that is an exact functor. See flat module or, for more generality, flat morphism.[2]

Character encodings

Character information
Unicode nameFLATNESS
UTF-8226 143 165E2 8F A5
Numeric character reference⏥⏥


  1. Committee 117, A. C. I. (November 3, 2006). Specifications for Tolerances for Concrete Construction and Materials and Commentary. American Concrete Institute. ISBN 9780870312212 via Google Books.
  2. Ballast, David Kent (March 16, 2007). Handbook of Construction Tolerances. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9780471931515 via Google Books.
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