Giant-cell fibroma is a type of fibroma not associated with trauma or irritation. It can occur at any age and on a mucous membrane surface. The most common oral locations are on the gingiva of the mandible, tongue, and palate. It is a localized reactive proliferation of fibrous connective tissue.
Giant-cell fibroma (GCF) is a benign non-neoplastic lesion first described by Weathers and Callihan (1974). It occurs in the first three decades of life and predominates in females (Houston, 1982; Bakos, 1992). Clinically, the GCF presents as an asymptomatic, papillary and pedunculated lesion. The most predominant location is the mandibular gingiva (Houston, 1982; Bakos, 1992). Histologically, the GCF is distinctive, consisting of fibrous connective tissue without inflammation and covered with stratified squamous hyperplastic epithelium. The most characteristic histological feature is the presence of large spindle-shaped and stellate-shaped mononuclear cells and multinucleated cells. These cells occur in a variety of lesions, such as the fibrous papule of the nose, ungual fibroma, acral fibrokeratoma, acral angiofibroma and desmoplastic fibroblastoma (Swan, 1988; Pitt et al., 1993; Karabela-Bouropoulou et al., 1999; Jang et al., 1999). Despite many studies, the nature of the stellated multinucleate and mononuclear cell is not clear (Weathers and Campbell, 1974; Regezi et al., 1987; Odell et al., 1994; Magnusson and Rasmusson, 1995).
- Kahn, Michael A. Basic Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology. Volume 1. 2001.