Noble metal

Noble metals in the periodic table
H  He
LiBe  B C N O F Ne
NaMg  AlSiP S ClAr
RbSrY ZrNbMoTcRuRhPdAgCdInSnSbTeI Xe
CsBa * HfTaWReOsIrPtAuHgTlPbBiPoAtRn
FrRa ** RfDbSgBhHsMtDsRgCnNhFlMcLvTsOg
 * LaCePrNdPmSmEuGdTbDyHoErTmYbLu
**AcThPaU NpPuAmCmBkCfEsFmMdNoLr
   Other precious metals
   Non-precious unreactive metals
   Radioactive unreactive metals

In chemistry, the noble metals are metals that are resistant to corrosion and oxidation in moist air (unlike most base metals). The short list of chemically noble metals (those elements upon which almost all chemists agree) comprises ruthenium (Ru), rhodium (Rh), palladium (Pd), silver (Ag), osmium (Os), iridium (Ir), platinum (Pt), and gold (Au).[1]

More inclusive lists include one or more of mercury (Hg),[2][3][4] rhenium (Re)[5] or copper (Cu) as noble metals. On the other hand, titanium (Ti), niobium (Nb), and tantalum (Ta) are not included as noble metals although they are very resistant to corrosion.

A collection of the noble metals, including copper, rhenium and mercury, which are included by some definitions. These are arranged according to their position in the periodic table.

While the noble metals tend to be valuable – due to both their rarity in the Earth's crust and their usefulness in areas like metallurgy, high technology, and ornamentation (jewelry, art, sacred objects, etc.) – the terms "noble metal" and "precious metal" are not synonymous.

The term noble metal can be traced back to at least the late 14th century[6] and has slightly different meanings in different fields of study and application. Only in atomic physics is there a strict definition, which includes only copper, silver, and gold, because they have completely filled d-subshells. For this reason there are many quite different lists of "noble metals".

In addition to this term's function as a compound noun, there are circumstances where "noble" is used as an adjective for the noun "metal". A "galvanic series" is a hierarchy of metals (or other electrically conductive materials, including composites and semimetals) that runs from noble to active, and allows one to predict how materials will interact in the environment used to generate the series. In this sense of the word, graphite is more noble than silver and the relative nobility of many materials is highly dependent upon context, as for aluminium and stainless steel in conditions of varying pH.[7]


Platinum, gold and mercury can be dissolved in aqua regia, a highly concentrated mixture of hydrochloric acid and nitric acid, but iridium and silver cannot. Palladium and silver are, however, soluble in nitric acid. Ruthenium can be dissolved in aqua regia only when in the presence of oxygen, while rhodium must be in a fine pulverized form. Niobium and tantalum are resistant to all acids, including aqua regia. [8]


In physics, the definition of a noble metal is most strict. It requires that the d-bands of the electronic structure be filled. From this perspective, only copper, silver and gold are noble metals, as all d-like bands are filled and do not cross the Fermi level.[9] However, d-hybridized bands do cross the Fermi level to a minimal extent. For platinum, two d-bands cross the Fermi level, changing its chemical behaviour such that it can function as a catalyst. The difference in reactivity can easily be seen during the preparation of clean metal surfaces in an ultra-high vacuum: surfaces of "physically defined" noble metals (e.g., gold) are easy to clean and keep clean for a long time, while those of platinum or palladium, for example, are covered by carbon monoxide very quickly.[10]


Metallic elements, including noble and several non-noble metals (noble metals bolded):[11]

Element Atomic number Group Period Reaction Potential Electron configuration
Gold 79 11 6 Au3+
+ 3 e → Au
1.56 V [Xe]4f145d106s1
Platinum 78 10 6 Pt2+
+ 2 e → Pt
1.18 V [Xe]4f145d96s1
Iridium 77 9 6 Ir3+
+ 3 e → Ir
1.156 V [Xe]4f145d76s2
Palladium 46 10 5 Pd2+
+ 2 e → Pd
0.987 V [Kr]4d10
Osmium 76 8 6 OsO
+ 8 H+
+ 8 e → Os + 4 H
0.838 V [Xe]4f145d66s2
Silver 47 11 5 Ag+
+ e → Ag
0.7996 V [Kr]4d105s1
Mercury 80 12 6 Hg2+
+ 2 e→ Hg
0.7973 V [Xe]4f145d106s2
Polonium 84 16 6 Po2+
+ 2 e → Po
0.65 V[12] [Xe]4f145d106s26p4
Rhodium 45 9 5 Rh2+
+ 2 e → Rh
0.600 V [Kr]4d85s1
Ruthenium 44 8 5 Ru2+
+ 2 e → Ru
0.455 V [Kr]4d75s1
Copper 29 11 4 Cu2+
+ 2 e → Cu
0.337 V [Ar]3d104s1
Bismuth 83 15 6 Bi3+
+ 3 e → Bi
0.308 V [Xe]4f145d106s26p3
Technetium 43 7 5 TcO
+ 4 H+
+ 4 e → Tc + 2 H
0.272 V [Kr]4d55s2
Rhenium 75 7 6 ReO
+ 4 H+
+ 4 e → Re + 2 H
0.259 V [Xe]4f145d56s2
Antimony 51 15 5 Sb
+ 6 H+
+ 6 e → 2 Sb + 3 H
0.152 V [Kr]4d105s25p3

The columns group and period denote its position in the periodic table, hence electronic configuration. The simplified reactions, listed in the next column, can also be read in detail from the Pourbaix diagrams of the considered element in water. Finally the column potential indicates the electric potential of the element measured against a Standard hydrogen electrode. All missing elements in this table are either not metals or have a negative standard potential.

Antimony is considered to be a metalloid and thus cannot be a noble metal. Also chemists and metallurgists consider copper and bismuth to not be noble metals because they easily oxidize due to the reaction O
+ 2 H
+ 4e ⇄ 4 OH
(aq) + 0.40 V which is possible in moist air.

The film of silver is due to its high sensitivity to hydrogen sulfide. Chemically patina is caused by an attack of oxygen in wet air and by CO
afterward.[8] On the other hand, rhenium-coated mirrors are said to be very durable,[8] although rhenium and technetium are said to tarnish slowly in moist atmosphere.[13]

See also


  1. A. Holleman, N. Wiberg, "Lehrbuch der Anorganischen Chemie", de Gruyter, 1985, 33. edition, p. 1486
  2. Die Adresse für Ausbildung, Studium und Beruf
  3. "Dictionary of Mining, Mineral, and Related Terms", Compiled by the American Geological Institute, 2nd edition, 1997
  4. Scoullos, M.J., Vonkeman, G.H., Thornton, I., Makuch, Z., "Mercury - Cadmium - Lead: Handbook for Sustainable Heavy Metals Policy and Regulation",Series: Environment & Policy, Vol. 31, Springer-Verlag, 2002
  5. The New Encyclopædia Britannica, 15th edition, Vol. VII, 1976
  7. Everett Collier, "The Boatowner’s Guide to Corrosion", International Marine Publishing, 2001, p. 21
  8. 1 2 3 A. Holleman, N. Wiberg, "Inorganic Chemistry", Academic Press, 2001
  9. Hüger, E.; Osuch, K. (2005). "Making a noble metal of Pd". EPL (Europhysics Letters). 71 (2): 276. Bibcode:2005EL.....71..276H. doi:10.1209/epl/i2005-10075-5.
  10. S. Fuchs, T.Hahn, H.G. Lintz, "The oxidation of carbon monoxide by oxygen over platinum, palladium and rhodium catalysts from 10−10 to 1 bar", Chemical engineering and processing, 1994, V 33(5), pp. 363-369
  11. D. R. Lidle editor, "CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics", 86th edition, 2005
  12. A. J. Bard, "Encyclopedia of the Electrochemistry of the Elements", Vol. IV, Marcel Dekker Inc., 1975
  13. R. D. Peack, "The Chemistry of Technetium and Rhenium", Elsevier, 1966

External links

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