Physical vapor deposition
Physical vapor deposition (PVD) describes a variety of vacuum deposition methods which can be used to produce thin films. PVD uses physical process (such as heating or sputtering) to produce a vapor of material, which is then deposited on the object which requires coating. PVD is used in the manufacture of items which require thin films for mechanical, optical, chemical or electronic functions. Examples include semiconductor devices such as thin film solar panels, aluminized PET film for food packaging and balloons, and coated cutting tools for metalworking. Besides PVD tools for fabrication, special smaller tools (mainly for scientific purposes) have been developed.
The source material is unavoidably also deposited on most other surfaces interior to the vacuum chamber, including the fixturing used to hold the parts.
- Cathodic Arc Deposition: In which a high-power electric arc discharged at the target (source) material blasts away some into highly ionized vapor to be deposited onto the workpiece.
- Electron beam physical vapor deposition: In which the material to be deposited is heated to a high vapor pressure by electron bombardment in "high" vacuum and is transported by diffusion to be deposited by condensation on the (cooler) workpiece.
- Evaporative deposition: In which the material to be deposited is heated to a high vapor pressure by electrical resistance heating in "high" vacuum.
- Pulsed laser deposition: In which a high-power laser ablates material from the target into a vapor.
- Sputter deposition: In which a glow plasma discharge (usually localized around the "target" by a magnet) bombards the material sputtering some away as a vapor for subsequent deposition.
- Sublimation sandwich method: Used for creating man-made crystals.
Various thin film characterisation techniques can be used to measure the physical properties of PVD coatings, such as:
- Calo tester: coating thickness test
- Nanoindentation: hardness test for thin-film coatings
- Pin on disc tester: wear and friction coefficient test
- Scratch tester: coating adhesion test
- X-ray micro-analyzer: investigation of structural features and heterogeneity of elemental composition for the growth surfaces
Comparison to other deposition techniques
- PVD coatings are sometimes harder and more corrosion resistant than coatings applied by the electroplating process. Most coatings have high temperature and good impact strength, excellent abrasion resistance and are so durable that protective topcoats are almost never necessary.
- Ability to utilize virtually any type of inorganic and some organic coating materials on an equally diverse group of substrates and surfaces using a wide variety of finishes.
- More environmentally friendly than traditional coating processes such as electroplating and painting.
- More than one technique can be used to deposit a given film.
- Specific technologies can impose constraints; for example, line-of-sight transfer is typical of most PVD coating techniques, however there are methods that allow full coverage of complex geometries.
- Some PVD technologies typically operate at very high temperatures and vacuums, requiring special attention by operating personnel.
- Requires a cooling water system to dissipate large heat loads.
As mentioned previously, PVD coatings are generally used to improve hardness, wear resistance and oxidation resistance. Thus, such coatings are used in a wide range of applications such as:
- Dies and moulds for all manner of material processing
- Cutting tools
- Thin films (window tint, food packaging, etc.)
- Darts barrels
- Metals (Aluminum, Copper, Bronze, etc.)
- Selvakumar, N.; Barshilia, Harish C. (2012-03-01). "Review of physical vapor deposited (PVD) spectrally selective coatings for mid- and high-temperature solar thermal applications". Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells. 98: 1–23. doi:10.1016/j.solmat.2011.10.028.
- Hanlon, J. (1992). 1st ed. Handbook of Package Engineering, Lancaster, PA, Technomic Publishing: ISBN 0-87762-924-2. Chapter 4 Coatings and Laminations
- "Product Development | Coating Services Group". coatingservicesgroup.com. Retrieved 2015-10-09.
- Fortunato, E.; Barquinha, P.; Martins, R. (2012-06-12). "Oxide Semiconductor Thin-Film Transistors: A Review of Recent Advances". Advanced Materials. 24 (22): 2945–2986. doi:10.1002/adma.201103228. ISSN 1521-4095.
- He, Zhenping; Kretzschmar, Ilona (6 December 2013). "Template-Assisted GLAD: Approach to Single and Multipatch Patchy Particles with Controlled Patch Shape". Langmuir. 29 (51): 15755–15761. doi:10.1021/la404592z.
- He, Zhenping; Kretzschmar, Ilona (18 June 2012). "Template-Assisted Fabrication of Patchy Particles with Uniform Patches". Langmuir. 28 (26): 9915–9919. doi:10.1021/la3017563.
- Dunaev A.A., Egorova I.L. (2015). "Properties and optical application of polycrystalline zinc selenide obtained by physical vapor deposition.". Scientific and Technical Journal of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics. 15 (3): 449–456.
- Arvind Andre (editor). Handbook of Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation and Deposition. New York: Wiley-Interscience, 2000. ISBN 0-471-24698-0.
- Bach, Hans, and Dieter Krause (editors). Thin Films on Glass. Schott series on glass and glass ceramics. London: Springer-Verlag, 2003. ISBN 3-540-58597-4.
- Bunshah, Roitan F. (editor). Handbook of Deposition Technologies for Films and Coatings: Science, Technology and Applications, second edition. Materials science and process technology series. Park Ridge, N.J.: Noyes Publications, 1994. ISBN 0-8155-1337-2.
- Gläser, Hans Joachim. Large Area Glass Coating. Dresden: Von Ardenne Anlagentechnik, 2000. ISBN 3-00-004953-3.
- Glocker, David A., and S. Ismat Shah (editors). Handbook of Thin Film Process Technology (2 vol. set). Bristol, U.K.: Institute of Physics Pub, 2002. ISBN 0-7503-0833-8.
- Mahan, John E. Physical Vapor Deposition of Thin Films. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2000. ISBN 0-471-33001-9.
- Mattox, Donald M. Handbook of Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) Processing: Film Formation, Adhesion, Surface Preparation and Contamination Control.. Westwood, N.J.: Noyes Publications, 1998. ISBN 0-8155-1422-0.
- Mattox, Donald M. The Foundations of Vacuum Coating Technology. Norwich, N.Y.: Noyes Publications/William Andrew Pub., 2003. ISBN 0-8155-1495-6.
- Mattox, Donald M. and Vivivenne Harwood Mattox (editors). 50 Years of Vacuum Coating Technology and the Growth of the Society of Vacuum Coaters. Albuquerque, N.M.: Society of Vacuum Coaters, 2007. ISBN 978-1-878068-27-9.
- Ohring, Milton Material Science of Thin Films: Deposition and Structure. 2nd edition, Academic Press, 2002. ISBN 0-12-524975-6.
- Powell, Carroll F., Joseph H. Oxley, and John Milton Blocher (editors). Vapor Deposition. The Electrochemical Society series. New York: Wiley, 1966.
- Westwood, William D. Sputter Deposition. AVS Education Committee book series, v. 2. New York: Education Committee, AVS, 2003. ISBN 0-7354-0105-5.
- Willey, Ronald R. Practical Monitoring and Control of Optical Thin Films. Charlevoix, MI: Willey Optical, Consultants, 2007. ISBN 978-0-615-13760-5.
- Willey, Ronald R. Practical Equipment, Materials, and Processes for Optical Thin Films. Charlevoix, MI: Willey Optical, Consultants, 2007. ISBN 978-0-615-14397-2.
- Snyder, Tim. "NASA’s PVD Chrome Coating Can Enhance Your Driving Experience", 4wheelonline.com. 6 May 2013
- Society of Vacuum Coaters
- PVD Animation—an animation of a generic PVD sputter tool
- Physical vapor deposition