Music tracker

OpenMPT, a modern tracker with a graphical user interface

A Music tracker (short version tracker) is a type of music sequencer software for creating music. The music is represented as discrete musical notes positioned in several channels at discrete chronological positions on a vertical timeline. The file format used for saving songs is called a module file.

A music tracker's user interface is usually number based. Notes, parameter changes, effects and other commands are entered with the keyboard into a grid of fixed time slots as codes consisting of letters, numbers and hexadecimal digits.[1] Separate patterns have independent timelines; a complete song consists of a master list of repeated patterns.

Later trackers departed from solely using module files, adding other options both to the sound synthesis (hosting generic synthesizers and effects or MIDI output) and to the sequencing (MIDI input and recording), effectively becoming general purpose sequencers with a different user interface.

Music trackers like DefleMask and Famitracker are commonly used to make chiptunes.


Schism Tracker with a classical ASCII based GUI, typical for trackers of the 1980s and 1990s, playing a module from the video game Bejeweled by Finnish composer Skaven

1987: origins on the Amiga

The term tracker derives from Ultimate Soundtracker; the first tracker software.[2] Ultimate Soundtracker was written by Karsten Obarski and released in 1987 by EAS Computer Technik for the Commodore Amiga.[3] Ultimate Soundtracker was a commercial product, but soon shareware clones such as NoiseTracker appeared as well. The general concept of step-sequencing samples numerically, as used in trackers, is also found in the Fairlight CMI sampling workstation of the early 1980s. Some early tracker-like programs appeared for the Commodore 64, before 1987, such as Sound Monitor, but these did not feature sample playback, instead playing notes on the computer's internal synthesizer. Later, in Rock Monitor 3 and 4 they implemented sample player, usually with short drum samples loaded in RAM memory.

The first trackers supported four pitch and volume modulated channels of 8-bit PCM samples, a limitation derived from the Amiga's Paula audio chipset and the commonplace 8SVX format used to store sampled sound. However, since the notes were samples, the limitation was less important than those of synthesizing music chips.[4]

1990s: MS-DOS PC versions

During the 1990s, tracker musicians gravitated to the PC as software production in general from C64 and Amiga platforms to the PC. Although the IBM and compatibles initially lacked the hardware sound processing capabilities of the Amiga, with the advent of the Sound Blaster line from Creative, PC audio slowly began to approach CD Quality (44.1 kHz/16 bit/Stereo) with the release of the SoundBlaster 16.

Another sound card popular on the PC tracker scene was the Gravis Ultrasound, which continued the hardware mixing tradition, with 32 internal channels and onboard memory for sample storage. For a time, it offered unparalleled sound quality and became the choice of discerning tracker musicians. Understanding that the support of tracker music would benefit sales, Gravis gave away some 6000 GUS cards to participants. Coupled with excellent developer documentation, this gesture quickly prompted the GUS to become an integral component of many tracking programs and software. Inevitably, the balance was largely redressed with the introduction of the Sound Blaster AWE32 and its successors, which also featured on-board RAM and wavetable (or sample table) mixing.

Screenshot of Scream Tracker 3.21, a popular Tracker for the PC during the 1990s

The responsibility for audio mixing passed from hardware to software (the main CPU), which gradually enabled the use of more and more channels. From the typical 4 MOD channels of the Amiga, the limit had moved to 7 with TFMX players and 8, first with Oktalyzer and later with the vastly more popular OctaMED (all Amiga programs), then 32 with ScreamTracker 3 and FastTracker 2 on the PC and on to 64 with Impulse Tracker (PC) and MED SoundStudio (Amiga and later PC). An Amiga tracker called Symphonie Pro even supported 256 channels.

As such, hardware mixing did not last. As processors got faster and acquired special multimedia processing abilities (e.g. MMX) and companies began to push Hardware Abstraction Layers, like DirectX, the AWE and GUS range became obsolete. DirectX, WDM and, now more commonly, ASIO, deliver high-quality sampled audio irrespective of hardware brand.

There was also a split off from the sample based trackers taking advantage of the OPL2/OPL3 chips of the Sound Blaster series. Adlib Tracker II and many others survive to this day. All Sound Tracker was able to combine both the FM synthesis of the OPL chips and the sample based synthesis of the EMU-8000 chips in the Sound Blaster AWE series of cards as well as MIDI output to any additional hardware of choice.

2000s: Multiple platforms

Tracker music could be found in computer games of the late 1990s and early 2000s, such as the Unreal series, Deus Ex, Jazz Jackrabbit and Hitman: Codename 47. Tracker software continues to develop. Some of the early Amiga trackers such as ProTracker, OctaMED have received various updates, mostly for porting to other platforms. ProTracker having resumed development in 2004, with plans for releasing version 5 to Windows and AmigaOS, but only version 4.0 beta 2 for AmigaOS has been released. Other cross-platform trackers include Renoise, MilkyTracker and SunVox.

Buzz, ModPlug Tracker, Renoise, Psycle, and others offer features undreamed-of back in the day (improved signal-to-noise ratios, automation, VST support, internal DSPs and multi-effects, multi I/O cards support etc.).

In 2005, FamiTracker, a tracker for the NES and Famicom, was officially released. As of version 0.5 beta, it is so far the only tracker for the system with full expansion audio support including the Sunsoft5B.

Renoise, a popular tracker in the 2000s and 2010s.

During 2007, Renoise and Modplug Tracker (OpenMPT) were presented in Computer Music Magazine as professional and inexpensive alternative to other music production software.[5]

2010s: Current state

Jeskola Buzz Modular is being regularly updated as of September 2012.[6]

As of 2010, Modplug Tracker (OpenMPT) and Renoise are probably the most actively developed tracker and the most long-living project of this kind, started in 1997 and 2000, respectively.

In 2011, DefleMask was released. It is a multi-system chipmusic tracker, supporting SEGA Genesis, SEGA Master System, Nintendo Game Boy, YAMAHA's SMAF, among other systems, developed by Delek.[7]

In June 2011, an on-line software synthesizer-based tracker called Sonant Live[8] was released. It is different from other trackers in that it runs completely in a web browser.

Adlib Tracker II has been steadily updated since the late 1990s and has become open source on the Google Code in 2012.[9] In January 2015, Adlib Tracker II released its most robust update to date with many new features to control the FM synthesizer chip.[10]


See also: Module file

There are several elements common to any tracker program: samples, notes, effects, tracks (or channels), patterns, and orders.

A sample is a small digital sound file of an instrument, voice, or other sound effect. Most trackers allow a part of the sample to be looped, simulating a sustain of a note.

A note designates the frequency at which the sample is played back. By increasing or decreasing the playback speed of a digital sample, the pitch is raised or lowered, simulating instrumental notes (e.g. C, C#, D, etc.).

An effect is a special function applied to a particular note. These effects are then applied during playback through either hardware or software. Common tracker effects include volume, portamento, vibrato, retrigger, and arpeggio.

A track (or channel) is a space where one sample is played back at a time. Whereas the original Amiga trackers only provided four tracks, the hardware limit, modern trackers can mix a virtually unlimited number of channels into one sound stream through software mixing. Tracks have a fixed number of "rows" on which notes and effects can be placed (most trackers lay out tracks in a vertical fashion). Tracks typically contain 64 rows and 16 beats, although the beats and tempo can be increased or decreased to the composer's taste.

A basic drum set could thus be arranged by putting a bass drum at rows 0, 4, 8, 12 etc. of one track and putting some hihat at rows 2, 6, 10, 14 etc. of a second track. Of course bass and hats could be interleaved on the same track, if the samples are short enough. If not, the previous sample is usually stopped when the next one begins. Some modern trackers simulate polyphony in a single track by setting the "new note action" of each instrument to cut, continue, fade out, or release, opening new mixing channels as necessary.

A pattern is a group of simultaneously played tracks that represents a full section of the song. A pattern usually represents an even number of measures of music composition.

An order is part of a sequence of patterns which defines the layout of a song. Patterns can be repeated across multiple orders to save tracking time and file space.

There are also some tracker-like programs that utilize tracker-style sequencing schemes, while using real-time sound synthesis instead of samples. Many of these programs are designed for creating music for a particular synthesizer chip such as the OPL chips of the Adlib and SoundBlaster sound cards, or the sound chips of classic home computers.

Tracker music is typically stored in module files where the song data and samples are encapsulated in a single file. Several module file formats are supported by popular music player programs such as Winamp or XMMS. Well-known formats include MOD, MED, S3M, XM and IT.

Use in professional music

The hardcore techno scene has had many releases originally written using trackers and released on CD and vinyl.[11] Notable artists include Nasenbluten, Noisekick, Neophyte and Deadmau5.[12][13][14]

Also in video game soundtracks tracker music was used by notable artists as Andrew Sega, Alexander Brandon, Dan Gardopée and Peter Hajba.

Selected list of music trackers

Windows, macOS, and Linux

Name Latest
License OS versions File format support VST
Modular mixer
Windows macOS Linux MID MOD XM IT S3M
Buze (beta) 2016-01 GPL / BSD Yes No No Load Load Load Load Yes Yes Yes
Buzztrax 2013-03 LGPL No Yes Yes Load Load Load Load No Yes Yes
ChibiTracker[15] 2008-03 GPL Yes Yes Yes No Load Yes Yes Load No No
MadTracker 2006-02 Commercial Yes No No Load Load Yes Load Load Yes No
MilkyTracker [16] 2013-11 GPL Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Load Load No No
OpenMPT 2016-11 BSD Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Protrekkr[17][18] 2013-10 BSD Yes Yes Yes No Load No No No No No
Psycle 2015-09 GPL Yes No No No Load Yes Load Load Yes Yes
Radium[19] 2016-09 GPL Yes Yes Yes Load Load Load No No Yes Yes
Renoise 2016-01 Commercial Yes Yes Yes Load Load Load Load No Yes No
Schism Tracker 2016-09 GPL Yes Yes Yes Load Load Load Yes Yes No No
snibbetracker[20] 2015-09 BETA Yes Yes No No No No No No No No
SoundTracker (beta) 2006-02 GPL No No Yes No Yes Yes No No No No
SunVox 2016-01 Freeware Yes Yes Yes Yes Load Load No No No Yes
SVArTracker 2015-06 Commercial Yes No No Load Load Load Load Load Yes Yes

Interpreted platforms

These trackers run in virtual machines, such as Java.

Atari ST / STE / Falcon



Other operating systems


Allows users to create music for one system on another. Usually uses emulation to produce sound, some of trackers also can use real sound chips connected to host system.

See also

Further reading

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tracker software.


  1. Gallagher, Mitch (2009). The Music Tech Dictionary: A Glossary of Audio-Related Terms and Technologies. Course Technology. Retrieved September 10, 2014.
  2. Olga Guriunova. Art Platforms and Cultural Production on the Internet. Routledge. p. 162. ISBN 978-0-415-89310-7. Retrieved 2014-09-13.
  3. Matsuoka, Claudio (2007-11-04). "Tracker History Graphing Project". Retrieved 2011-01-29. Tracker History Graph
  4. Commodore's SID or General Instruments' venerable AY-3-8912 and Yamaha's compatible YM2149.
  5. "Top Trackers". Computer Music Magazine. Future Publishing Ltd (113). June 2007. Retrieved 2007. Tracker! The amazing free music software giving the big boys a run for their money. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  6. Buzz changelog
  7. DefleMask's Website, Delek's website for his Multi-System Tracker. DefleMask Tracker.
  8. Sonant Live, an on line music tracker.
  10. at2 on GitHub
  11. Index of /deadnoise/MOD FILES
  12. Energy Flash: A Journey Through Rave Music and Dance Culture by Simon Reynolds
  13. Noisekick Interview
  14. Burns, Todd L. (2008-09-30). "Deadmau5: It's complicated". Retrieved 2014-09-03. I was in my Mom's basement tooling away on Impulse Tracker on a 386 just doing Nintendo music until some Loop Library company hired me as a producer.
  15. 1 2 Kirn, Peter (2008-04-11). "Chibitracker on DS; Favorite Trackers on the Road?". Create Digital Music. Retrieved 2010-05-17.
  16. 1 2 Kirn, Peter (2008-03-14). "MilkyTracker Pan-Platform Tracker Now Open Source, with New Features". Create Digital Music. Retrieved 2010-05-17.
  19. 1 2 Matheussen, Kjetil (3 May 2014). Radium: A music editor inspired by the music tracker (pdf). Linux Audio Conference. Karlsruhe. pp. 1–8. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
  21. Phillips, Dave (2000-12-01). "About the Mod: Part One". Linux Journal. Retrieved 2011-06-13.
  22. "Frinika homepage".
  23. Hamilton, Kirk (2012-10-04). "Make Chiptunes In Your Browser With This Awesome, Simple Sequencer". Kotaku. Retrieved 2013-06-09.
  24. 1 2 New Beat Homepage
  25. "LittleGPTracker Hits 1.0; Free, GP2x, Linux, Mac, Windows, Does Lots of Stuff". Create Digital Music. 2008-05-29. Retrieved 2010-05-21.
  26. "MilkyTracker - Android Apps on Google Play". Retrieved 2016-02-14.
  27. NitroTracker, DS Music Tool, Now Open Source - Create Digital Music
  28. storlek (2011-02-01). "Modplug". Retrieved 2011-02-05. Schism Tracker uses a highly customized version of the Modplug library, [...]. Many of Schism's fixes have since been back-ported to OpenMPT [...]
  29. "Player abuse tests". 2009-08-01. Retrieved 2011-02-06.
  30. "Your Sinclair" (83). Future. November 1992: 6 and 22.
  31. "Your Sinclair" (84). Future. December 1992: 5.
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