Air Tamajeq language

Air Tamajeq (Tayiṛt) is a variety of Tamasheq, one of the Tuareg languages. It is spoken by the Tuareg people inhabiting the Aïr Mountains, in the Agadez Region of Niger.

Native toNiger
Native speakers
250,000 (1998)[1]
  • Air (Tayiṛt)
  • Tanassfarwat (Tamagarast)
Language codes
ISO 639-3thz

Ethnologue lists two dialects: Air (Tayert) and Tanassfarwat (Tamagarast/Tamesgrest). Blench (2006) considers these two varieties to be distinct languages. He lists Ingal and Gofat as dialects of Air/Tayirt and Azerori as a dialect of Tamesgrest.



Short Vowels
Front Central Back
High i ə u
Mid e ă o
Low a
Phonetic vowel sounds
Oral Pharyngealized
Front Central Back Front Central Back
High [i] [ɨ ~ ə] [u] [ɪˤ] [ɜˤ] [ʊˤ]
Mid [ɪ ~ e] [ɜ ~ ɐ] [ʊ ~ o] [ɛˤ ~ æˤ] [ɐˤ ~ aˤ] [ɔˤ]
Low [æ ~ a] [aˤ ~ ɑˤ]


Labial Alveolar Palato-
Velar Uvular Glottal
plain phar. plain phar. plain phar.
Plosive voiceless t (tˤ) (č) [tʃ] k q
voiced b d (ǧ) [dʒ] g
Fricative voiceless f (fˤ) s (sˤ) š [ʃ] χ h
voiced z ž [ʒ] ʁ
Nasal m (mˤ) n (nˤ) ŋ
Lateral l (ɫ)
Trill r (rˤ)
Approximant w y [j]
  • Sounds [tʃ] and [dʒ] mainly occur as allophones of /t/ and /d/ before front vowels. A velar /ŋ/ mainly appears when followed by a labio-velar /w/, or a uvular /q/.[2]


  1. Tayart at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. Kossmann, Maarten G. (2011). A Grammar of Ayer Tuareg (Niger). Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe.

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