Languages of Morocco

There are a number of languages of Morocco. The two official languages are Standard Arabic and Tamazight.[7] Moroccan Arabic (known as Darija) is the spoken native vernacular. The languages of prestige in Morocco are Arabic in its Classical and Modern Standard Forms and some times French, the latter of which serves as a second language for approximately 33% of Moroccans.[8] According to a 2000–2002 survey done by Moha Ennaji, author of Multilingualism, Cultural Identity, and Education in Morocco, "there is a general agreement that Standard Arabic, Moroccan Arabic, and Berber are the national languages."[9] Ennaji also concluded "This survey confirms the idea that multilingualism in Morocco is a vivid sociolinguistic phenomenon, which is favored by many people."[10]

Languages of Morocco
OfficialArabic and Amazigh
Standard Moroccan Tamazight
VernacularArabic dialects (92%)[1]

Amazigh languages (26%)[1]

ForeignFrench (33%)[3][4]
Spanish (21%)[5]
English (14%)[6]

There are around 8 million Berber speakers in Morocco.[1] French retains a major place in Morocco, as it is taught universally and serves as Morocco's primary language of commerce and economics, culture, sciences and medicine; it is also widely used in education and government. Morocco is a member of the Francophonie.[11]

Spanish is spoken by many Moroccans, particularly in the northern regions around Tetouan and Tangier, as well as in parts of the south, due to historic ties and business interactions with Spain.[12]

According to a 2012 study by the Government of Spain, 98% of Moroccans spoke Moroccan Arabic, 63% spoke French, 43% Amazigh, 14% spoke English, and 10% spoke Spanish.[12]


Historically, languages such as Phoenician,[13] Punic,[14] and Amazigh languages have been spoken in Morocco. Juba II, king of Mauretania, wrote in Greek and Latin.[15] It is unclear how long African Romance was spoken, but its influence on Northwest African Arabic (particularly in the language of northwestern Morocco) indicates it must have had a significant presence in the early years after the Arab conquest.[16][17]

Arabic came with the Muslim conquest of the Maghreb;[18] Abdellah Guennoun cites the Friday sermon delivered by Tariq Ibn Ziad just before the conquest of al-Andalus in 711 as the first instance of Moroccan literature in Arabic.[19] However, the language spread much more slowly than the religion.[18] At first, Arabic was used only in urban areas, especially in cities in the north, while the rural areas remained the domain of Amazigh languages.[18]

The first recorded work in Darija or Moroccan Arabic is Al-Kafif az-Zarhuni's epic zajal poem "al-Mala'ba," dating back to the reign of Marinid Sultan Abu al-Hasan Ali ibn Othman.[20]

Language policy

After Morocco gained independence with the end of the French Protectorate in 1956, it started a process of Arabization. The policy of Arabization was not applied in earnest until 17 years after independence.[21] An editorial in Lamalif in 1973 argued that, although French unified the elite and major sections of the economy, national unity could only be achieved based on Arabic—though Lamalif called for a new incarnation of the language, describing Standard Arabic as untenably prescriptive and Moroccan vernacular Arabic (Darija) as too poor to become in and of itself a language of culture and knowledge.[21]

In the year 2000, after years of neglecting and ignoring the other languages present in Morocco, the Charter for Educational Reform recognized them and the necessity for them.[11]

Until then the Tamazight languages were marginalized in the modern society and the number of monolingual speakers decreased. In recent years, the Berber culture has been gaining strength and some developments promise that these languages will not die (Berber is the generic name for the Berber languages. The term Berber is not used nor known by the speakers of these languages).[22]

Arabic, on the other hand, has been perceived as a prestigious language in Morocco for over a millennium. However, there are very distinctive varieties of Arabic used, not all equally prestigious, which are MSA (Modern Standard Arabic), the written form used in schools and ‘Dialectal Arabic’, the non-standardized spoken form. The difference between the two forms in terms of grammar, phonology and vocabulary is so great, it can be considered as diglossia. MSA is practically foreign to Moroccan schoolchildren, and this creates problems with reading and writing, consequently leading to a high level of illiteracy in Morocco.[22]

The French language is also dominant in Morocco, especially in education and administration, therefore was initially learned by an elite and later on was learned by a great number of Moroccans for use in domains such as finance, science, technology and media. That is despite the government decision to implement a language policy of ignoring French after gaining independence, for the sake of creating a monolingual country.[22]

From its independence until the year 2000, Morocco opted for Arabization as a policy, in an attempt of replacing French with Arabic. By the end of the 1980s, Arabic was the dominant language in education, although French was still in use in many important domains. The goals of Arabization were not met, in linguistic terms, therefore a change was needed.[22]

In 2000 the Charter of Educational Reform introduced a drastic change in language policy. From then on, Morocco has adopted a clear perpetual educational language policy with three main cores: improving and reinforcing the teaching of Arabic, using a variety of languages, such as English and French in teaching the fields of technology and science and acceptance of Tamazight. The state of Morocco still sees Arabic (MSA) as its national language, but acknowledges that not all Moroccans are Arabic speakers and that Arabization did not succeed in the area of science and technology. The aims of the Charter seem to have been met faster than expected, probably since the conditions of the Charter started to be implemented immediately. Nowadays the different minority languages are acknowledged in Morocco although Arabic still is the dominant one and is being promoted by the government.[22][23]


Framework Law 17:51 allowed scientific subjects to be taught in foreign languages—especially French—in public elementary schools.[24]


Arabic, along with Berber, is one of Morocco's two official languages,[7] although it is the Moroccan dialect of Arabic, namely Darija, meaning "everyday/colloquial language";[25] that is spoken or understood, frequently as a second language, by the majority of the population (about 85% of the total population). Many native Berber speakers also speak the local Arabic variant as a second language.[26] Arabic in its Classical and Standard forms is one of the two prestige languages in Morocco. Aleya Rouchdy, author of Language Contact and Language Conflict in Arabic, said that Classical/Modern Arabic and French are constantly in conflict with one another, but that most Moroccans believe that the bilingualism of Classical Arabic and French is the most optimal choice to allow for Morocco's development.[27]

In 1995 the number of native Arabic speakers in Morocco was approximately 18.8 million (65% of the total population), and 21 million including the Moroccan diaspora.[28]

As a member of the Maghrebi Arabic grouping of dialects, Moroccan Arabic is similar to the dialects spoken in Mauritania, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya (and also Maltese). The country shows a marked difference in urban and rural dialects. This is due to the history of settlement. traditionally, Arabs established centers of power in only a few cities and ports in the region, with the effect that the other areas remained Berber-speaking. Then, in the 13th century, Bedouin tribes swept through many of the unsettled areas, spreading with them their distinct Arabic dialect in the non-urbanized areas and leaving speakers of Berber isolated in the mountainous regions.

Modern Standard and Classical Arabic

Moroccans learn Standard Arabic as a language. It is not spoken at home or on the streets. Standard Arabic is frequently used in administrative offices, mosques, and schools.[29] According to Rouchdy, within Morocco Classical Arabic is still only used in literary and cultural aspects, formal traditional speeches, and discussions about religion.[27]

Moroccan Arabic

Moroccan Arabic, along with Berber, is one of two languages spoken in homes and on the street.[29] The language is not used in writing.[30] Abdelâli Bentahila, the author of the 1983 book Language Attitudes among Arabic–French Bilinguals in Morocco, said that Moroccans who were bilingual in both French and Arabic preferred to speak Arabic while discussing religion; while discussing matters in a grocery store or restaurant; and while discussing matters with family members, beggars, and maids.[31] Moha Ennaji, author of Multilingualism, Cultural Identity, and Education in Morocco, said that Moroccan Arabic has connotations of informality, and that Moroccan Arabic tends to be used in casual conversations and spoken discourse.[32] Ennaji added that Bilingual Moroccans tend to use Moroccan Arabic while in the house.[32] Berbers generally learn Moroccan Arabic as a second language and use it as a lingua franca, since not all versions of Berber are mutually intelligible with one another.[30]

The below table presents statistical figures of speakers, based on the 2014 population census.[1] It must be noted that this table includes not only native speakers of Arabic, but also people who speak Arabic as a second or third language.

Region Moroccan Arabic Total population % of Moroccan Arabic


Tanger-Tetouan-Al Hoceima3,426,7313,540,01296.8%
Dakhla-Oued Ed-Dahab102,049114,02189.5%
Béni Mellal-Khénifra2,122,9572,512,37584.5%
Laâyoune-Sakia El Hamra268,509340,74878.8%

Hassani Arabic

Hassānīya, is spoken by about 0.8% of the population mainly in the Southern regions of Morocco. Communities of speakers exist elsewhere in Morocco too.

The below table presents statistical figures of speakers, based on the 2014 population census.[1]

Region Hassani Arabic Total population % of Hassani Arabic


Laâyoune-Sakia El Hamra133,914340,74839.3%
Guelmim-Oued Noun86,214414,48920.8%
Dakhla-Oued Ed-Dahab21,322114,02118.7%
Béni Mellal-Khénifra2,5122,512,3750.1%
Tanger-Tetouan-Al Hoceima03,540,0120.0%


Berber-speaking areas in Morocco

The exact population of speakers of Berber languages is hard to ascertain, since most North African countries do not – traditionally – record language data in their censuses (An exception to this was the 2004 Morocco population census). The Ethnologue provides a useful academic starting point; however, its bibliographic references are inadequate, and it rates its own accuracy at only B-C for the area. Early colonial censuses may provide better documented figures for some countries; however, these are also very much out of date. The number for each Berber language is difficult to estimate.

Berber serves as a vernacular language in many rural areas of Morocco.[30] Berber, along with Moroccan Arabic, is one of two languages spoken in homes and on the street.[29] The population does not use Berber in writing. Aleya Rouchdy, author of "Language Contact and Language Conflict in Arabic," said that Berber is mainly used in the contexts of family, friendship, and "street".[30] In his 2000–2002 research, Ennaji found that 52% of the interviewees placed Berber as a language inferior to Arabic because it did not have a prestigious status and because its domain was restricted.[33] Ennaji added that "[t]he dialectisation of Berber certainly reduces its power of communication and its spread."[9]

Speakers of Riffian language were estimated to be around 1.5 million in 1990.[34] The language is spoken in the Rif area in the north of the country and is one of the three main Berber languages of Morocco.

The Tashelhit language is considered to be the most widely spoken as it covers the whole of the Region Souss-Massa-Drâa, and is also spoken in the Marrakech-Tensift-El Haouz and Tadla-Azilal regions. Studies done in 1990 show around 3 million people, concentrated in the south of Morocco, speak the language.[34]

Central Morocco Tamazight is the second Berber language in Morocco. A 1998 study done by Ethnologue, shows that around 3 million people speak the language in Morocco.[35] The language is most used in the regions Middle Atlas, High Atlas and east High Atlas Mountains.

Other Berber languages are spoken in Morocco, as the Senhaja de Srair and the Ghomara dialects in the Rif mountains, the Figuig Shilha (not to be confused with Atlas Shilha) and Eastern Zenati in eastern Morocco, and Eastern Middle Atlas dialects in central Morocco.

2014 Population Census

Local used languages in Morocco:[1]

Local used languages Male Female Total
Darija 92.2% 89.7% 90.9%
Tashelhit 14.2% 14.1% 14.1%
Tamazight 7.9% 8.0% 7.9%
Tarifit 4.0% 4.1% 4.0%
Hassania 0.8% 0.8% 0.8%

2014 Population Census by region

The below table presents statistical figures of speakers of Berber languages, based on the 2014 population census.[1]

Region Tashelhit Tamazight Tarifit % of Berber speakers Number of Berber speakers Total population
Drâa-Tafilalet22.0%48.5%0.1%70.6% 1,148,8521,627,269
Souss-Massa65.9%1.1%0.1%67.1% 1,783,4552,657,906
Guelmim-Oued Noun52.0%1.3%0.2%53.5% 221,752414,489
Oriental2.9%6.5%36.5%45.9% 1,056,7022,302,182
Béni Mellal-Khénifra10.6%30.2%0.1%40.9% 1,027,5612,512,375
Marrakesh-Safi26.3%0.5%0.1%26.9% 1,211,7824,504,767
Dakhla-Oued Ed-Dahab17.9%4.6%0.4%22.9% 26,110114,021
Fès-Meknès1.9%12.9%2.4%17.2% 725,3174,216,957
Laâyoune-Sakia El Hamra12.8%2.7%0.3%15.8% 53,838340,748
Tangier-Tetouan-Alhoceima1.7%0.6%10.3%12.6% 446,0413,540,012
Rabat-Salé-Kénitra5.2%6.3%0.4%11.9% 541,7584,552,585
Casablanca-Settat6.9%0.7%0.2%7.8% 532,4886,826,773
Morocco14.1%7.9%4.0%26.0% 8,738,62233,610,084

Other studies

"Few census figures are available; all countries (Algeria and Morocco included) do not count Berber languages. Population shifts in location and number, effects of urbanization and education in other languages, etc., make estimates difficult. In 1952 A. Basset (LLB.4) estimated the number of Berberophones at 5,500,000. Between 1968 and 1978 estimates ranged from eight to thirteen million (as reported by Galand, LELB 56, pp. 107, 123–25); Voegelin and Voegelin (1977, p. 297) call eight million a conservative estimate. In 1980, S. Chaker estimated that the Berberophone populations of Kabylie and the three Moroccan groups numbered more than one million each; and that in Algeria, 3,650,000, or one out of five Algerians, speak a Berber language (Chaker 1984, pp. 8-)

In 1952, André Basset ("La langue berbère", Handbook of African Languages, Part I, Oxford) estimated that a "small majority" of Morocco's population spoke Berber. The 1960 census estimated that 34% of Moroccans spoke Berber, including bi-, tri-, and quadrilinguals. In 2000, Karl Prasse cited "more than half" in an interview conducted by Brahim Karada at According to the Ethnologue (by deduction from its Moroccan Arabic figures), the Berber-speaking population is estimated at 65% (1991 and 1995). However, the figures it gives for individual languages only add up to 7.5 million, or about 57%. Most of these are accounted for by three dialects:

Riff: 4.5 million (1991)
Shilha: 7 million (1998)
Central Morocco Tamazight: 7 million (1998)

This nomenclature is common in linguistic publications, but is significantly complicated by local usage: thus Shilha is sub-divided into Shilha of the Dra valley, Tasusit (the language of the Souss) and several other (mountain) dialects. Moreover, linguistic boundaries are blurred, such that certain dialects cannot accurately be described as either Central Morocco Tamazight (spoken in the Central and eastern Atlas area) or Shilha. The differences among all Moroccan dialects are not too pronounced: public radio news are broadcast using the various dialects; each journalist speaks his or her own dialect with the result that understanding is not obstructed, though most southern Berbers find that understanding Riff requires some getting used to.


French and Arabic (MSA) coexist in Moroccan administration and business.

Within Morocco, French, one of the country's two prestige languages,[27] is often used for business, diplomacy, and government;[36] and serves as a lingua franca.[37] Aleya Rouchdy, author of Language Contact and Language Conflict in Arabic, said that "For all practical purposes, French is used as a second language."[30]

Different figures of French speakers in Morocco are given. According to the OIF, 33% of Moroccans speak French, among them 13.5% fully francophone and thus bilingual with one of the other Moroccan languages, and 19.5% partially francophone.[3] According to the 2004 census, nearly 69% of literate people can read and write French.[4]

It is also the mother language of some Moroccans, regrouped mainly in the western side of the country (Casablanca and Rabat Mainly, but also many other cities.)


In a survey from 2005 by the CIDOB (Barcelona Centre for International Affairs), 21.9% of respondents from Morocco claimed to speak Spanish, with higher percentages in the northern regions.[38] The use of Spanish in northern Morocco and Western Sahara derives largely from the fact that Spain had previously occupied those areas and incorporated Spanish Sahara as a province. In these regions Spanish television is often watched and there are interactions in Spanish on a daily basis. [27]

After Morocco declared independence in 1956, French and Arabic became the main languages of administration and education, causing the role of Spanish to decline.[27]

Today, Spanish is one of the languages most studied in the educational system, together with classical Arabic, Berber and French. According to the Cervantes Institute, there are at least 58,382 students of Spanish, and the Committee of Castile and León reports as many as 350,000.[39] The interest in Spanish for the Moroccans arises from their proximity to Spain and the fact that Moroccans are the most numerous group of legal immigrants in Spain (748,953).[40] Morocco has six Cervantes Institutes, the second highest of any country (after Brazil). In addition, four other Cervantes classrooms exist, for a total of 10 cities with Cervantes Institutes in Morocco. 11 Spanish language educational institutions exist with 4,353 pupils, 16% of whom have Spanish nationality. Spanish could become the European language in highest demand in Morocco, displacing French, due to the increasing popularity of the Spanish language.[40]

See also


  • Ennaji, Moha. Multilingualism, Cultural Identity, and Education in Morocco. Springer Publishing, January 20, 2005. p. 127. ISBN 0387239790, 9780387239798.
  • Rouchdy, Aleya. Language Contact and Language Conflict in Arabic. Psychology Press, January 6, 2003. Volume 3 of Curzon Arabic Linguistics Series, Curzon Studies in Arabic Linguistics. p. 71. ISBN 0700713794, 9780700713790.
  • Stevens, Paul B. "Language Attitudes among Arabic-French Bilinguals in Morocco." (book review) Journal of Language and Social Psychology. 1985 4:73. p. 73–76. doi:10.1177/0261927X8500400107.


  1. "2014 General Population and Habitat Census". Retrieved 2019-09-15.
  2. "Ethnologue 14 report for Morocco". 2007-11-19. Archived from the original on 2007-11-19. Retrieved 2020-06-04.
  3. "La Francophonie dans le monde." (Archive) Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie. p. 16. Retrieved on 15 October 2012.
  4. Youssef Maaroufi. "Recensement général de la population et de l'habitat 2004". Site institutionnel du Haut-Commissariat au Plan du Royaume du Maroc (in French).
  5. According to a survey made in 2005 by CIDOB, 21.6% of the population speak Spanish (, According to the Morocco Census of 2004, the Morocco population is 29,680,069 (
  6. "British Council – United Kingdom" (PDF). May 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-05-13.
  7. 2011 Constitution of Morocco Full text of the 2011 Constitution (French) Archived 2012-02-29 at the Wayback Machine
  8. "La Francophonie dans le monde." (Archive) Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie. p. 16. Retrieved on 15 October 2012.
  9. Ennaji, p. 164.
  10. Ennaji, p. 162-163.
  11. Deroche, Frédéric (2008-01-01). Les peuples autochtones et leur relation originale à la terre: un questionnement pour l'ordre mondial (in French). L'Harmattan. ISBN 9782296055858.
  12. Fernández Vítores, David (2014), La lengua española en Marruecos (PDF), ISBN 978-9954-22-936-1
  13. Markoe, Glenn (2000-01-01). Phoenicians. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-22614-2.
  14. Pennell, C. R. (2013-10-01). Morocco: From Empire to Independence. Oneworld Publications. ISBN 978-1-78074-455-1.
  15. Elder.), Pliny (the (1857). The Natural History of Pliny. H. G. Bohn.
  16. Martin Haspelmath; Uri Tadmor (22 December 2009). Loanwords in the World's Languages: A Comparative Handbook. Walter de Gruyter. p. 195. ISBN 978-3-11-021844-2.
  17. Smaïli, Kamel (2019-10-04). Arabic Language Processing: From Theory to Practice: 7th International Conference, ICALP 2019, Nancy, France, October 16–17, 2019, Proceedings. Springer Nature. ISBN 978-3-030-32959-4.
  18. المنصور, محمد (2017-01-02). "كيف تعرب المغرب". زمان (in Arabic). Retrieved 2020-03-30.
  19. كنون، عبد الله (1908-1989) المؤلف (2014). النبوغ المغربي في الأدب العربي. دارالكتب العلمية،. ISBN 978-2-7451-8292-0. OCLC 949484459.
  20. "الملعبة، أقدم نص بالدارجة المغربية".
  21. "Le dossier de l'arabisation". Lamalif. 58: 14. April 1973.
  22. James Cohen; Kara T. McAlister; Kellie Rolstad; Jeff MacSwan, eds. (2005), "From Monolingualism to Multilingualism: Recent Changes in Moroccan Language Policy" (PDF), ISB4: Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Bilingualism, Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press, pp. 1487–1500, retrieved 30 April 2017
  23. Marley, D. (2004). Language Attitudes in Morocco Following Recent Changes in Language Policy. Language Policy 3. Klauwer Academic Publishers. Pp. 25-46.
  24. "The Latest in Language Confusion: Morocco Switches Back from Arabic to French". Al-Fanar Media. 2020-03-02. Retrieved 2020-03-15.
  25. Wehr, Hans: Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic (2011); Harrell, Richard S.: Dictionary of Moroccan Arabic (1966)
  26. Ethnologue report for language code: shi. Retrieved on 2011-07-23.
  27. Rouchdy, Aleya (2002). Language Contact and Language Conflict in Arabic: Variations on a Sociolinguistic Theme. Psychology Press. p. 71. ISBN 0700713794.
  28. Ethnologue report for language code: ary. Retrieved on 2011-07-23.
  29. Ennaji, p. 162.
  30. Rouchdy, Aleya (2002). Language Contact and Language Conflict in Arabic: Variations on a Sociolinguistic Theme. Psychology Press. p. 73. ISBN 978-0-7007-1379-0.
  31. Stevens, p. 73.
  32. Ennaji, Moha (2005). Multilingualism, Cultural Identity, and Education in Morocco. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 127. ISBN 9780387239798.
  33. Ennaji, p. 163.
  34. Ethnologue report for language code: rif. Retrieved on 2011-07-23.
  35. Ethnologue report for language code: tzm. Retrieved on 2011-07-23.
  36. "Morocco", CIA World Factbook, retrieved 13 October 2012, French (often the language of business, government, and diplomacy)
  37. "Bitter Fruit: where Donegal's jobs went." Irish Independent. Saturday January 16, 1999. Retrieved on October 15, 2012. "Behind the locked gates and the sign saying "Interdit au Public" (forbidden to the public) (French is the lingua franca in Morocco)"
  38. Leyre Gil Perdomingo; Jaime Otero Roth (2008), "Enseñanza y uso de la lengua española en el Sáhara Occidental" (PDF), Analysis of the Real Instituto Elcano nº 116
  39. Plan de Castilla y León Español para Extranjeros 2005/2009 (PDF) (in Spanish), Junta de Castilla y León, archived from the original (PDF) on 11 July 2011
  40. "Instituto Cervantes: aprender español, cursos de español y cultura en España e Hispanoamérica" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-08-11.

Further reading

  • Bentahila, Abdelâli. "Language attitudes among Arabic-French bilinguals in Morocco". Multilingual Matters (Clevedon, Avon, England), 1983. Series #4. ISBN 0585259763 (electronic book), 0585259763 (electronic book), 9780585259765 (electronic book).
  • Bentahila, Abdelâli. "Motivations for Code-Switching among Arabic-French Bilinguals in Morocco." Language & Communication. 1983. Volume 3, p. 233 – 243. ISSN 0271-5309, EISSN 1873-3395, doi:10.1016/0271-5309(83)90003-4.
  • Chakrani, Brahim. "A sociolinguistic investigation of language attitudes among youth in Morocco." (dissertation) ProQuest. ISBN 1124581251. UMI Number: 3452059.
  • Heath, Jeffrey. "Jewish and Muslim Dialects of Moroccan Arabic". Routledge, 2013. ISBN 9781136126420 (preview)
  • Keil-Sagawe, Regina. "Soziokulturelle und sprachenpolitische Aspekte der Francophonie am Beispiel Marokko (Manuskripte zur Sprachlehrforschung, 38) by Martina Butzke-Rudzynski" (review). Zeitschrift für französische Sprache und Literatur. Franz Steiner Verlag. Bd. 106, H. 3, 1996. p. 295–298. Available at JStor. The document is in the German language.
  • Lahjomri, Abdeljalil. Enseignement de la langue francaise au Maroc et dialogue des cultures (Teaching of the French Language in Morocco and Dialogue of Cultures). Francais dans le Monde. 1984. p. 18–21. ERIC #: EJ312036. The document is in the French language. See profile at ERIC.
  • Languages of Morocco
  • Sadiqi, Fatima. Women, Gender and Language in Morocco. 01/2003, Women and Gender Ser., ISBN 9004128530, Volume 1., p. 354
  • Salah-Dine Hammoud, Mohamed (1982). "Arabization in Morocco: A Case Study in Language Planning and Language Policy Attitudes." Unpublished PhD dissertation for the University of Texas at Austin, Available from University Microfilms International, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
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