Málaga (//, Spanish: [ˈmalaɣa]) is a municipality of Spain, capital of the Province of Málaga, in the autonomous community of Andalusia. With a population of 571,026 in 2018, it is the second-most populous city in Andalusia after Seville and the sixth most populous in Spain. It lies on the Costa del Sol (Coast of the Sun) of the Mediterranean, about 100 kilometres (62.14 miles) east of the Strait of Gibraltar and about 130 km (80.78 mi) north of Africa.
Top:Malagueta Bullring Stadium, Night view of Malaga Port, Stature of Cenachero, Patio de los Naranjos, Second:Alcazaba of Malaga, Third:La Concepcion Botanical Garden (Jardin Botanico de La Concepcion), Calle Marquos de Larios, Malaga Cathedral, Fourth:Cervantes Theater (Teatro de Cervantes), Atarazanas Market (Mercado de Atarazanas), Panoramic view of Malaga Bay, from Sierra de Mijas, Bottom:Malaga Pompidou Center Centro Pompidou de Malaga, La Caleta Beach (Playa de la Caleta), Malaga Picasso Museum (all item of left to right)
Coat of arms
Location in Spain
Location in Andalusia
Location in Province of Málaga
|Coordinates: 36°43′10″N 4°25′12″W|
|Province||Province of Málaga|
|Comarca||Málaga-Costa del Sol|
|Founded||8th century BC|
|• Body||City Council of Málaga|
|• Mayor||Francisco de la Torre Prados (PP)|
|• Municipality||398 km2 (154 sq mi)|
|• Urban||827 km2 (319 sq mi)|
|Elevation||11 m (36 ft)|
|• Density||1,400/km2 (3,700/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
|Calling code||+34 (Spain) 95 (Málaga)|
Málaga's history spans about 2,800 years, making it one of the oldest cities in Europe and one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. According to most scholars, it was founded about 770 BC by the Phoenicians as Malaka (Punic: 𐤌𐤋𐤊𐤀, MLKʾ). From the 6th century BC the city was under the hegemony of Ancient Carthage, and from 218 BC, it was ruled by the Roman Republic and then empire as Malaca (Latin). After the fall of the empire and the end of Visigothic rule, it was under Islamic rule as Mālaqah (Arabic: مالقة) for 800 years, but in 1487, the Crown of Castille gained control in the midst of the Granada War. The archaeological remains and monuments from the Phoenician, Roman, Arabic and Christian eras make the historic center of the city an "open museum", displaying its history of nearly 3,000 years.
The painter and sculptor Pablo Picasso, Hebrew poet and Jewish philosopher Solomon Ibn Gabirol and the actor Antonio Banderas were born in Málaga. The magnum opus of Cuban composer Ernesto Lecuona, "Malagueña", is named after the music of this region of Spain.
The most important business sectors in Málaga are tourism, construction and technology services, but other sectors such as transportation and logistics are beginning to expand. The Andalusia Technology Park (PTA), located in Málaga, has enjoyed significant growth since its inauguration in 1992. Málaga is home of the region's largest bank, Unicaja, and it is the fourth-ranking city in economic activity in Spain behind Madrid, Barcelona and Valencia, which ranks first in Andalusia.
Phoenicians from Tyre founded a colony named Málaka (Greek: Μάλακα) or Malake about 770 BC. The town controlled access to the Guadalmedina and served as a waypoint on trade routes between Phoenicia and the Strait of Gibraltar. Like other Phoenician colonies, it fell under Carthaginian rule during the 6th or 5th century BC. The Phoenician and Later Roman urban core developed around an area running from the Gibralfaro Hill to the mouth of the Malaca flumen (Guadalmedina).
After the Punic Wars, the Roman Republic took control of the town known to them as Malaca. By the 1st century BC, Strabo alluded to its Phoenician profile, in contrast to the hellenized characteristics of the neighbouring settlement of Mainake.
Transformed into a confederated city, it was under a special law, the Lex Flavia Malacitana. A Roman theatre was built at this time. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, it was ruled first by the Visigoths. The city was taken circa 552 by the Byzantine Empire; either Malaca or Carthago Nova possibly then becoming the capital of the province of Spania. The Byzantines restored and expanded the docks, thus consolidating the fishing and trading tradition the city already enjoyed. The city was retaken by the Visigoth King Sisebuto in 615. The visigoths ruled the city until the Umayyad Caliphate's conquest of the area in 711.
In the 8th century, the city became an important regional trade center. After its secession from the Abbassid caliphate, the Umayyad Emirate of Cordoba (later Caliphate) ruled over the town known to them as Mālaqah. The early 10th-century chronicle of Aḥmad al-Rāzī mentions the vineyards of Málaga, extolling the unparalleled quality of its raisins. After the demise of the Caliphate of Córdoba, Malaqah became the capital of a distinct taifa kingdom.
The traveller Ibn Battuta, who passed through around 1325, characterised it as "one of the largest and most beautiful towns of Andalusia [uniting] the conveniences of both sea and land, and... abundantly supplied with foodstuffs and fruits". He praised its grapes, figs, and almonds; "its ruby-coloured Murcian pomegranates have no equal in the world." Another exported product was its "excellent gilded pottery". The town's mosque was large and beautiful, with "exceptionally tall orange trees" in its courtyard.
After the formation of the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada in the 13th century, Málaga became a part of it. The export-oriented harbour traded silk fabrics, dry nuts (raisins, almonds and the famous Raiya figs, reportedly exported to as far as China), vine, cutlery, leather and the famous regional lustreware.
In the 15th century, Málaga was the main Nasrid port (followed by Almería), featuring a notable presence of Genoese merchants. It played a role both as stopover of the Atlantic international trade (as part of the routes connecting the Central Mediterranean to the North Atlantic) and as regional trading cog of the Kingdom of Granada. By the last rales of Nasrid rule, the city had a population of about 15,000.
Málaga was seized by Christian forces on 18 August 1487, after a 3-month 11 days siege, in what it was the most violent episode of the Granada War. The Muslim inhabitants resisted assaults and artillery bombardments before hunger forced them to surrender; practically the entire remaining population (around 11,000 people) became war captives and were sold into slavery in other Andalusian cities as well as Valencia and Barcelona. Only a minority of around 50 people led by merchant Alí Dordux were allowed to remain in the city.
The city was swiftly repopulated by Christian settlers coming from different locations of the Iberian Peninsula. Málaga became an exporting centre for the Middle Andalusia via the link of the city with Antequera and Córdoba, maintaining its trading character despite the nearly complete replacement of the population. The city did not escape a series of typhus fever outbreaks following its annexation to the Crown of Castile.
Following the death of regent Ferdinand the city rose in revolt in 1516 on the occasion of the installment of a new court controlled by the Admiral of Castile. It was only on 2 December 1530 when Málaga was freed from the influence of the Admiralty for good, confirming the privileges granted in the past by the Catholic Monarchs.
The municipality of Málaga annexed the coastal town of Torremolinos in 1924.
After the coup of July 1936 the government of the Second Republic retained control of Málaga. Its harbour was a base of the Republican navy at the beginning of the Spanish Civil War. It suffered heavy bombing by Italian warships which took part in breaking the Republican navy's blockade of Nationalist-held Spanish Morocco and took part in naval bombardment of Republican-held Málaga. After the Battle of Málaga and the Francoist takeover in February 1937, over seven thousand people were killed, as they were trying to flee the city through the road to Almería.
The well-known British journalist and writer Arthur Koestler was captured by the Nationalist forces on their entry into Málaga, which formed the material for his book Spanish Testament. The first chapters of the book include an eye-witness account of the 1937 fall of Málaga to Francisco Franco’s armies during the Spanish Civil War.
The city also suffered shelling later by Spanish Republican naval units.
Torremolinos—originally a small coastal town—greatly developed in the late 1950s and early 1960s, becoming an international tourist centre. The first gay bar in Spain was opened in Torremolinos in 1962 (and the first lesbian club in 1968), and the place acquired a lively LGTB life, to the point of being described as "the most 'cosmopolitan' and gay-friendly place in all of Spain". Nearly a decade after, in 1971, a policial crackdown seeking to curb "offences against public morality and decency" largely put an end to the appeal of the place, only regaining its status as hub of LGBT leisure and tourism after the death of the dictator.
Málaga is located in southern Spain, on the Costa del Sol (Coast of the Sun) on the northern side of the Alboran Sea (the westernmost portion of the Mediterranean Sea). It lies about 100 kilometres (62 miles) east of the Strait of Gibraltar and about 130 kilometres (81 miles) east of Tarifa (the southernmost point of continental Europe) and about 130 km (81 miles) to the north of Africa.
The Montes de Málaga mountain range (part of the Penibaetic System) is located in the northeast of the municipality. The highest point in the range (and in the municipality) is the Pico Reina, rising up to 1,031 m (3,383 ft) above sea level.
The city centre is located around the mouth of the Guadalmedina and close to the Guadalhorce's mouth (where the airport is located). The Totalán Creek constitutes the eastern boundary of Málaga with the municipality of Rincón de la Victoria.
The climate is subtropical-Mediterranean (Köppen climate classification: Csa) with very mild winters and hot summers. Málaga enjoys plenty of sunshine throughout the year, with an average of about 300 days of sunshine and only about 40–45 with precipitation annually. Its coastal location with winds blowing from the Mediterranean Sea make the heat manageable during the summer.
Málaga experiences the warmest winters of any European city with a population over 500,000. The average maximum temperature during the day in the period from December to February is 17–18 °C (63–64 °F). During the winter, the Málaga Mountains (Montes de Málaga) block the passage of cold winds from the north. Its average annual temperature is 23.3 °C (73.9 °F) during the day and 13.7 °C (56.7 °F) at night. In the coldest month, January, the temperature ranges from 14 to 20 °C (57 to 68 °F) during the day, 5 to 10 °C (41 to 50 °F) at night and the average sea temperature is 16 °C (61 °F). In the warmest month, August, the temperature ranges from 26 to 34 °C (79 to 93 °F) during the day, above 20 °C (68 °F) at night and the average sea temperature is 23 °C (73 °F).
Large fluctuations in temperature are rare. The highest temperature ever recorded at the airport was 44.2 °C (111.6 °F) on 18 July 1978. In August 1881, the average reported daytime maximum temperature was a record 34.8 °C (94.6 °F). The lowest temperature ever recorded was −3.8 °C (25.2 °F) on 4 February 1954. The highest wind speed ever recorded was on 16 July 1980, measuring 119 km/h (73.94 mph). Snowfall is virtually unknown; since the beginning of the 20th century, Málaga city has only recorded snow on one day, on 2 February 1954.
Annual average relative humidity is 65%, ranging from 58% in June to 72% in December. Yearly sunshine hours is between 2,800 and 3,000 per year, from 5–6 hours of sunshine per day in December to average 11 hours of sunshine per day in July. Rain occurs mainly in winter, with summer being generally dry.
|Climate data for Málaga Airport, Churriana, Spain (1981–2010), Extremes (1942-present)|
|Record high °C (°F)||26.8
|Average high °C (°F)||16.8
|Daily mean °C (°F)||12.1
|Average low °C (°F)||7.4
|Record low °C (°F)||−2.6
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||69
|Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm)||6||5||4||5||3||1||0||1||2||4||6||7||42|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||181||180||222||244||292||329||347||316||255||215||172||160||2,905|
|Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología Agencia Estatal de Meteorología|
|Climate data for Málaga Airport, Churriana, Spain (1981–2010) Highest and lowest mean temperatures|
|Mean maximum °C (°F)||19.7
|Mean minimum °C (°F)||5.2
|Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología|
|Climate data for Málaga|
|Average sea temperature °C (°F)||15.9
|Mean daily daylight hours||10.0||11.0||12.0||13.0||14.0||15.0||14.0||14.0||12.0||11.0||10.0||10.0||12.2|
|Average Ultraviolet index||2||4||5||7||8||10||10||9||7||5||3||2||6|
|Source: Weather Atlas|
The old historic centre of Málaga reaches the harbour to the south. In the north it is surrounded by mountains, the Montes de Málaga (part of the Baetic Cordillera) lying in the southern base of the Axarquía hills, and two rivers, the Guadalmedina – the historic center is located on its left bank – and the Guadalhorce, which flows west of the city into the Mediterranean, in the Churriana district.
The oldest architectural remains in the city are the walls of the Phoenician city, which are visible in the cellar of the Museo Picasso Málaga.
The Moors left posterity the dominating presence of the Castle of Gibralfaro, which is connected to the Alcazaba, the lower fortress and royal residence. Both were built during the Taifa period (11th century) and extended during the Nasrid period (13th and 14th centuries). The Alcazaba stands on a hill within the city. Originally, it defended the city from the incursions of pirates. Later, in the 11th century, it was completely rebuilt by the Hammudid dynasty. Occupying the eastern hillside that rises from the sea and overlooks the city, the Alcazaba was surrounded by palms and pine trees.
Like many of the military fortifications that were constructed in Islamic Spain, the Alcazaba of Málaga featured a quadrangular plan. It was protected by an outer and inner wall, both supported by rectangular towers, between which a covered walkway led up the slope to the Gibralfaro (this was the only exchange between the two sites). Due to its rough and awkward hillside topography, corridors throughout the site provided a means of communications for administrative and defensive operations, also affording privacy to the palatial residential quarters.
The entrance of the complex featured a grand tower that led into a sophisticated double bent entrance. After passing through several gates, open yards with beautiful gardens of pine and eucalyptus trees, and the inner wall through the Puerta de Granada, one finds the 11th- and 14th-century Governor's palace. It was organised around a central rectangular courtyard with a triple-arched gateway and some of the rooms have been preserved to this day. An open 11th-century mirador (belvedere) to the south of this area affords views of the gardens and sea below. Measuring 2.5 square metres (27 square feet), this small structure highlighted scalloped, five-lobed arches. To the north of this area were a waterwheel and a Cyclopean well (penetrating forty metres or 130 feet below ground), a hammam, workshops and the monumental Puerta de la Torre del Homenaje, the northernmost point of the inner walls. Directly beyond was the passage to the Gibralfaro above.
The Church of Santiago (Saint James) is an example of Gothic vernacular Mudéjar, the hybrid style that evolved after the Reconquista incorporating elements from both Christian and Islamic tradition. Also from the period is the Iglesia del Sagrario, which was built on the site of the old mosque immediately after the city fell to Christian troops. It boasts a richly ornamented portal in the Isabeline-Gothic style, unique in the city.
The Basílica y Real Santuario de Santa María de la Victoria, built in the late 17th century, has a chapel in which the vertical volume is filled with elaborate Baroque plasterwork.
- Walls. Phoenician, Roman, Byzantine, Arab and Spanish remains of the defensive compounds of the city.
- Church of the Sacred Heart.
- San Felipe Neri Church.
- Church of the Holy Martyrs.
- La Concepción, botanical and historical garden.
- Atarazanas Market.
- Anglican Cemetery of St. George.
- Palm grove and Muelle Uno. Port of Málaga.
- San Miguel Cemetery.
- La Malagueta bullring.
- Pedregalejo, old fishing district.
- Metropolitan area
The urban area, stretching mostly along a narrow strip of coastline, has a population of 1,066,532 on 827.33 square kilometres (319.43 sq mi) (density 1,289 inhabitants/km2 – 2012 data). It is formed by Málaga proper together with the following adjacent towns and municipalities: Rincón de la Victoria, Torremolinos, Benalmádena, Fuengirola, Alhaurín de la Torre, Mijas, Marbella and San Pedro Alcántara. The Málaga metropolitan area includes additional municipalities located mostly in the mountains area north of the coast and also some on the coast: Cártama, Pizarra, Coín, Monda, Ojén, Alhaurín el Grande and Estepona on west; Casabermeja on north; Totalán, Algarrobo, Torrox and Vélez-Málaga eastward from Málaga; centered Málaga urban area (Málaga, Rincón de la Victoria, Torremolinos, Benalmádena, Fuengirola, Marbella, Mijas) and Alhaurín de la Torre.
Together about 1.3 million (max. 1.6 million) people live in the Málaga metropolitan area and the number grows every year as all the municipalities and cities of the area record an annual increase in population.
Politics and administration
Málaga is a municipality, the basic local administrative division in Spain. The Ayuntamiento is the body charged with the municipal government and administration. The Plenary of the ayuntamiento is formed by 31 elected municipal councillors, who in turn invest the mayor. The last municipal election took place on 26 May 2019. The current mayor is Francisco de la Torre Prados (People's Party), who has won several mandates since becoming mayor in 2000. The city hall is located at the Casona del Parque, a Neo-Baroque building inaugurated in 1919.
The most important business sectors in Málaga are tourism, construction and technology services, but other sectors such as transportation and logistics are beginning to expand. The Andalusia Technology Park (PTA) (In Spanish, "Parque Tecnológico de Andalucía"), located in Málaga, has enjoyed significant growth since its inauguration in 1992 by the King of Spain. In 2018, this high-tech, science and industrial park employs over 16,774 workers, according to its own numbers.
In line with the city's strategic plan, the campaign "Málaga: Open for Business" is directed towards the international promotion of the city on all levels but fundamentally on a business level. The campaign places a special emphasis on new technologies as well as innovation and research in order to promote the city as a reference and focal point for many global business initiatives and projects.
Málaga is a city of commerce and tourism has been a growing source of revenue, driven by the presence of a major airport, the improvement of communications, and new infrastructure such as the AVE and the maritime station, and new cultural facilities such as the Picasso Museum, the Contemporary Art Centre and Trade Fair and Congress, which have drawn more tourists.
The city hosts the International Association of Science and Technology Parks (IASP) (Asociación Internacional de Parques Tecnológicos), and a group of IT company executives and business leaders has launched an information sector initiative, Málaga Valley e-27, which seeks to make Málaga the Silicon Valley of Europe. Málaga has had strong growth in new technology industries, mainly located in the Technological Park of Andalusia, and in the construction sector. The city is home to the largest bank in Andalusia, Unicaja, and such local companies as Mayoral, Charanga, Sando, Vera, Ubago, Isofoton, Tedial, Novasoft, Grupo Vértice and Almeida viajes, and other multinationals such as Fujitsu Spain, Pernod Ricard Spain, Accenture, Epcos, Oracle Corporation, Huawei and San Miguel. Nobel prize-winner Bruce Beutler is planning to set up the biggest mutagenesis research laboratory in the world in Malaga.
|Energy and water||24|
|Chemical and mining||231|
|Mechanical engineering industry||833|
|Industrial activity index||771|
Feasts and festivals
- Holy Week
Holy Week has been observed for five centuries in Málaga. Processions start on Palm Sunday and continue until Easter Sunday. Images depicting scenes from the Passion are displayed on huge ornate tronos (floats or thrones), some weighing more than 5,000 kilograms (11,000 pounds). Famous is the royal archbrotherhood of Our-Lady of Hope Nuestra Señora de la Esperanza. They have more than 5,000 members and 600 nazarenos. These tronos highlight the processions that go through the streets led by penitents dressed in long robes, with capirote, followed by women in black carrying candles. Drums and trumpets play music and occasionally someone spontaneously sings a mournful saeta dedicated to the floats as they make their way slowly round the streets. Some Holy Week tronos are so huge that they must be housed in places outside the churches, as they are taller than the entrance doors. Famous is the military procession of "la legion" (Royal congregation of Mena) playing marches and singing their anthem (El Novio de la Muerte) during procession.
- Feria de Agosto
During the celebration of the Feria de Málaga in August, the streets are transformed into traditional symbols of Spanish culture and history, with sweet wine, tapas, and live flamenco shows. The day events consist of dancing, live music (such as flamenco or verdiales, traditional music from Málaga) and bullfights at La Malagueta, while the night fair is moved to the Recinto Ferial, consisting of restaurants, clubs, and an entire fair ground with rides and games.
- Málaga Film Festival
The Málaga Film Festival (Festival de Málaga Cine Español; FMCE), dedicated exclusively to films produced in Spain, is one of the most important film festivals in the country. It is held annually during a week in March or April.
The Fiestas de Carnaval, in which people dress in all types of costumes, takes place prior to the holy 40 days of Lent every February. A contest is held in the Teatro Cervantes between groups of singers, quartets and choirs who compete in the singing of ironic songs about social and political issues. The Carnival takes to the streets of Málaga on the week before Ash Wednesday, ending on Malagueta beach with the burial of the anchovy (entierro de la sardina).
The cuisine of Málaga and the wider Costa del Sol is known for its espetos, fish (most often sardines) grilled over open fires in the chiringuitos located near the beaches. The espeto has been proposed as a candidate for designation by UNESCO as an intangible cultural heritage.
Most of the population of Málaga professes Roman Catholicism as its religion, although not many are practising Catholics. Protestants also have a presence in Málaga: one of seven congregations of the Reformed Churches in Spain is based in the city and is the only one that permits paedocommunion, while The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is growing.
Málaga is home to three major professional sports teams. These include:
- Málaga CF – football club plays in Segunda División. Honours: UEFA Intertoto Cup: 2002, UEFA Cup: 2003 (Quarter-finals), UEFA Champions League: 2013 (Quarter-finals).
- CB Málaga – basketball club plays in ACB League. Honours: Spanish Championship: 2006, runner-up: 1995, 2002; Spanish Cup: 2005, runner-up: 2009; Spanish Super-Cup: runner-up: 2006, 2015; Korać Cup: 2001, runner-up: 2000; Euroleague: third place: 2007; EuroCup: 2017
- CD El Palo – football club plays in third level of Spanish football: Segunda Division B
- Club Atlético Málaga – women's football club plays in Superliga Femenina, Honours: Spain Cup: 1998, runner-up: 1997; Spain Supercup: 1999
The city has four large sports facilities:
- Estadio La Rosaleda – football stadium, with a capacity of 30,044. One of the arenas of Segunda División (for Málaga CF) and 1982 FIFA World Cup. Final of UEFA Intertoto Cup 2002.
- Jose Maria Martin Carpena Arena – sports arena, with a maximum capacity of 14,000. It is home of CB Málaga and arena of Spanish Cup 2001, 2007, 2014; Spanish Super-Cup 2004, 2006, 2015; NBA Europe Live Tour 2007;
- Estadio de Atletismo Ciudad de Málaga – athletics stadium with a capacity of 7,500. Place where the European Cup 2006 was celebrated; 2006 Vuelta a España; Spain Athletics Championships 2005 and 2011;
- Centro Acuático de Málaga (Málaga Aquatic Centre) – water arena, with a capacity of 17,000. Arena of European Water Polo Championship 2008.
The city is an important tourist destination, known as "the capital of the Costa del Sol". An estimated 6 million tourists visit the city each year. Tourists usually visit the birthplace of Pablo Picasso and the Museo Picasso Málaga, the Carmen Thyssen Museum, the old town or the beaches. The Málaga harbour is also the second busiest cruise port of the Iberian Peninsula.
A popular walk leads up the hill to the Gibralfaro castle (a Parador), offering panoramic views over the city. The castle is next to the Alcazaba, the old Muslim palace, which in turn is next to the inner city of Málaga. Other nearby attractions are the Roman Theatre, the old Jewish quarter, the cathedral, and the Church of Santiago in mudéjar style. A popular walk follows the Paseo del Parque (a promenade that runs alongside a grand park with many palm trees and statues) to the harbour, ending in Calle Larios, the main commercial street of the city. There is also a curious museum, the Museum of the Holy Week, which includes an impressive display of Baroque ecclesiastical items.
In the early part of the 21st century, the city of Málaga invested heavily (more than 100 million euros in 10 years) in the arts to draw tourists and establish itself as a cultural Andalucia destination with 28 museums. Some notable and recently opened museums include the Museo Municipal de Málaga, the Museo de Málaga (Fine Arts and Archeology museum) at the Palacio de la Aduana, Carmen Thyssen Museum, opened in 2011, located at Palacio de Villalón, the Museo Picasso Málaga (opened in 2003, at the Palacio de los Condes de Buenavista) near the cathedral. the Centre Pompidou Málaga (opened in 2015, located in El Cubo), the Fundación Picasso and Picasso Birthplace Museum, the Colección del Museo Ruso (Collection of the Russian Museum) Saint Petersburg/Málaga, (opened in 2015, located in the Tabacalera building), the Museum Jorge Rando (opened in 2015), the Museo de Artes y Costumbres Populares (Museum of Arts and Popular Traditions), and the Centro de Arte Contemporáneo de Málaga (CAC Málaga; opened 2003, near the Alameda train station).
Bilingual education in schools
Since the launch of the ‘Plan de Fomento del Plurilingüismo’ in 2005, 169 schools in Malaga have included bilingual education in their programmes. Although English is the most usual second language, many other primary and secondary schools in Malaga offer the choice of French, German, Arabic, Portuguese or Chinese. This first action has been followed by a second project run by the Junta de Andalucia. The so-called "Plan Estratégico de Desarrollo de las Lenguas en Andalucía" intends to provide pupils with a basic level (B1) of at least one foreign language.
Dance, music, drama, visual arts and crafts also have a place in the public education system of Málaga. Some of the most relevant artistic schools are:
- Escuela de Arte San Telmo : Arts and Crafts, vocational and high-school education.
- Conservatorio Profesional de Musica Manuel Carra: music, vocational training.
- Conservatorio Profesional de Danza de Málaga: dance, vocational training.
- Conservatorio Superior de Música de Málaga: Bachelor and Master level.
- Escuela Superior de Artes Escénicas de Málaga (Bachelor and Master level)
Spanish as a foreign language
Universities in Malaga
The public University of Málaga (UMA) was created in 1972. Earlier in the 20th-century a branch of the University of Granada (a Faculty of Economic and Business Sciences) had been opened in the city in 1963. As of 2012 the UMA had 35,354 students.
The campus of the UMA is located in the Western neighbourhood of Teatinos. There are 13 different faculties, namely: Fine Arts, Science, Communication, Education, Health Sciences, Economic and Business Sciences, Business and Management, Law, Social Work and Studies, Humanities, Medicine, Psychology, and Tourism. In addition there are 5 higher technical schools, the Higher Polytechnic School, the Higher Technical School of Architecture, the Higher Technical School of Telecommunication Engineering, the Higher Technical School of Industrial Engineering and the Higher Technical School of Computer Engineering.
International schools in Málaga city
- BrItish School, Málaga (British school)
- Lycée Français de Málaga (French school)
- Swedish School in Malaga
The city is served by Málaga-Costa del Sol Airport, one of the first in Spain and the oldest still in operation. In 2008, it handled 12,813,472 passengers, making it the fourth-busiest in Spain. It is the international airport of Andalusia, accounting for 85 percent of its international traffic. The airport, connected to the Costa del Sol, has a daily link with twenty cities in Spain and over a hundred cities in Europe (mainly in the United Kingdom, Central Europe and the Nordic countries but also the main cities of Eastern Europe: Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Budapest, Sofia, Warsaw or Bucharest), North Africa, Middle East (Riyadh, Jeddah and Kuwait) and North America (New York City, Toronto and Montreal).
The Port of Málaga is the city's seaport, operating continuously at least since 600 BC. The port is one of the busiest ports on the Mediterranean Sea, with a trade volume of over 428,623 TEU and 642,529 passenger in 2008.
The port has a ferry connection to the Port of Melilla, playing a role in the so-called Operación paso del estrecho ("Operation Pass of the Strait"), the planned seasonal transit of passengers during the summer months from Europe to North-Africa (and back to Europe).
Roads and highways
The A45 road leads north to Antequera and Córdoba. The Autovía A-7 parallels the N-340 road, both leading to Cádiz to the west through the Costa del Sol Occidental and Barcelona to the east through the Costa del Sol Oriental.
- Urban bus
Empresa Malagueña de Transportes buses are the main form of transport around the city. Málaga's bus station is connected with the city by the bus line number 4, although it is only ten minutes' walk to the Alameda from there.
- Metropolitan bus
The buses of the Málaga Metropolitan Transport Consortium (Consorcio de Transporte Metropolitano del Área de Málaga) are the main mean of transportation around the city of Málaga and the surrounding municipalities.
- Mass transit
Malaga Public Transportation Statistics
The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Malaga, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 49 min. 6% of public transit riders, ride for more than 2 hours every day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 9 min, while 8% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 4.1 km, while 1% travel for over 12 km in a single direction.
- Solomon ibn Gabirol (1021–1058), philosopher and poet
- Ibn al-Baitar (1188–1248), botanist and pharmacist
- Ruy López de Villalobos (1500–1544), explorer
- Diego de Montemayor (1530–1611), founder of Monterrey, Mexico and governor of Nuevo León
- Francisco de Leiva (1630–1676), playwright
- Luis de Unzaga (1721–1790), politician
- Bernardo de Gálvez (1746–1786), Count of Gálvez and Viscount of Galveston, military and colonial administrator
- María Manuela Kirkpatrick (1794–1879), aristocrat
- José de Salamanca (1811–1883), Marquis of Salamanca and Count of Los Llanos, businessman and politician
- Antonio Cánovas del Castillo (1828–1897), Prime Minister of Alfonso XII
- José Denis Belgrano (1844–1917), painter
- José Moreno Carbonero (1858–1942), painter
- Pablo Picasso (1881–1973), artist
- José Moreno Villa (1887–1955), painter and writer
- María Dávila (1990–), painter
- Bernardo Giner de los Ríos (1888–1970), architect and politician
- Victoria Kent (1898–1987), lawyer and politician
- Luis Bolín (1894–1969), lawyer and journalist
- Emilio Prados (1899–1962), poet
- Manuel Altolaguirre (1905–1959), poet
- Antonio Molina (1928–1992), singer
- Chiquito de la Calzada (1932–2017), comedian
- Antonio Luque (1941–), engineer and photovoltaics pioneer
- Juan Madrid (1943–), writer and journalist
- Pepe Romero (1944–), classical and flamenco guitarist
- Marisol or Pepa Flores (1948–), singer and actress
- Amparo Muñoz (1954–2011), Miss Universe Spain 1974, Miss Universe 1974
- Jorge Rando (1941–), artist
- Antonio Banderas (1960–), actor
- Miguel Ángel Jiménez (1964–), professional golfer
- Carlos Álvarez (1966–), baritone
- Antonio de la Torre (1968–), actor
- María del Mar Rodríguez Carnero, La Mari (1975–), singer
- Juan García Postigo (1981–), Mister World 2007
- Ana López Rodríguez, Anni B Sweet (1987–), singer
- Pablo Alborán (1989–), singer
- Joe Atlan (1989–), musician
- Isco Alarcón (1992–), footballer
- Miguel Herrán (1996–), actor
- Miguel de Miguel (1975–), actor
Twin towns and sister cities
Málaga is twinned with:
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- Huss (1985), p. 25
- "LaCaixa Bank economic report, 2011 (spanish)". Archived from the original on 20 June 2012.
- Corrales Aguilar 2003, p. 377.
- Corrales Aguilar 2003, p. 381.
- Leucona, Emilio. «Jornadas de estudio por el 150 aniversario del hallazgo de la Lex Flavia Malacitana». Consulted on 7 April 2008.
- Collado Campaña 2012, p. 2.
- Collado Campaña 2012, p. 3.
- Collado Campaña 2012, p. 5.
- Torres Balbás, Leopoldo (1974). "Málaga como escenario histórico" (PDF). Arquitectura (187): 324. ISSN 0004-2706.
- "Ibn Battuta: Travels in Asia and Africa". Fordham.edu. 21 February 2001. Retrieved 8 April 2011.
- Torres Balbás 1974, p. 329.
- Fábregas García 2003–2004, pp. 79; 89.
- Fábregas García 2003–2004, p. 79.
- Fábregas García, Adela (2003–2004). "Redes de comercio y articulación portuaria del Reino de Granada: puertos y escalas en el tráfico marítimo bajomedieval" (PDF). Chronica Nova. 30: 85.
- García Ruiz 2018, p. 83.
- García Ruiz, María Victoria (2018). "Málaga en el tránsito de medina nazarí a urbe cristiana" (PDF). Péndulo: Revista de Ingeniería y Humanidades (29): 77. ISSN 1132-1245.
- Góméz, Pedro Luis (19 August 2016). "Tal día como hoy hace 529 años". Diario Sur.
- González Arévalo, Raúl (2019). "La esclavitud en la España Medieval. (siglos XIV-XV). Generalidades y rasgos diferenciales". Millars: Espai i historia. 47 (2): 18–19. ISSN 1132-9823.
- Blood and Faith: The Purging of Muslim Spain, Matthew Carr, page 7, 2009
- García Ruiz 2018, p. 77.
- Ladero Quesada, Miguel Ángel (1992). "Mudéjares y repobladores en el Reino de Granada (1485-1501)". Cuadernos de Historia Moderna. 13: 62.
- López Beltrán, María Teresa (2003). "Los portugueses en el poblamiento inicial de Málaga (1487–1497)" (PDF). Os reinos ibéricos na Idade Média: livro de homenagem ao professor doutor Humberto Carlos Baquero Moreno. 1. p. 1148. ISBN 972-26-2134-3.
- Reder Gadow 2017, pp. 323–334.
- Reder Gadow, Marion (2017). "Málaga en tiempos del Emperador Carlos V". In Toro Ceballos, Francisco (ed.). Carolus. pp. 323–334. ISBN 978-84-89014-76-3.
- "La batalla naval de Málaga, en 1704: 20.000 hombres y 3.000 piezas de artillería". La Opinión de Málaga (in Spanish). 23 February 2014. Retrieved 13 January 2021.
- Balfour, Sebastian; Preston, Paul (2009). Spain and the great powers in the twentieth century. London, UK; New York, USA: Routledge. p. 172. ISBN 978-0-415-18078-8.
- Antony Beevor, The Battle for Spain: The Spanish Civil War 1936–1939. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. 2006, ISBN 0-297-84832-1
- Fernández Galeano, Javier (2016). "Is He a "Social Danger"?: The Franco Regime's Judicial Prosecution of Homosexuality in Málaga under the Ley de Vagos y Maleantes". Journal of the History of Sexuality. 25 (1): 8.
- Gómez, Alberto (29 April 2019). "La noche en que la dictadura acabó con el ambiente gay de Torremolinos". Sur.
- Fernández Galeano 2016, p. 10.
- Gómez, Alberto (27 September 2015). "Torremolinos celebra 27 años del «¡Ya somos catetos!»". Sur.
- "Municipio de Málaga". malagadesdesuscumbres.org. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
- "Etapa en síntesis. Etapa 1. Málaga · Rincón de la Victoria". Diputación Provincial de Málaga. p. 43.
- "Un paseo por la historia de la ciudad en una visita por el Castillo de Gibralfaro y la Alcazaba". Diario Sur (in Spanish). 22 August 2006. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
- "World Map of Köppen−Geiger Climate Classification". Archived from the original on 6 September 2010.
- "Málaga City – Local Travel Information and City Guide". Malaga.com. Retrieved 8 April 2011.
- "Málaga Sea Temperature". seatemperature.org. Retrieved 28 September 2020.
- "Málaga Aeropuerto: Málaga Aeropuerto - Valores extremos absolutos - Selector - Agencia Estatal de Meteorología - AEMET. Gobierno de España". Aemet.es (in Spanish). 4 February 1954. Retrieved 23 June 2017.
- "La gran nevada de 1954". 11 January 2009. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
- "Valores Climatológicos Normales. Málaga / Aeropuerto".
- "Climatological Information for Málaga, Spain" Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine – Hong Kong Observatory
- "Málaga Climate, Temperature, Average Weather History, Rainfall/ Precipitation, Sunshine". climatetemp.info. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 8 April 2011.
- "Valores extremos. Málaga Aeropuerto". Aemet.es. Retrieved 1 July 2014.
- "Highest and lowest means. Málaga Aeropuerto". Aemet.es. Retrieved 20 January 2018.
- "Málaga, Spain - Climate data". Weather Atlas. Retrieved 14 March 2017.
- "Districts" (Ayuntamiento de Málaga ed.). Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 23 June 2015. Retrieved 2015-04-12.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Dialnet.es, Fanny de Carranza Sell, La alcazaba de Málaga. Historia a través de su imagen, 2011. Archived 10 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine (In Spanish)
- Malaga, Area de Turismo-Ayuntamiento de. "Santiago Church". www.malagaturismo.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 12 January 2021.
- Malaga, Area de Turismo-Ayuntamiento de. "Santa María de la Victoria Basilica". www.malagaturismo.com. Retrieved 12 January 2021.
- "Churches and Chapels". www.malagaturismo.com. Retrieved 12 January 2021.
- Malaga, Area de Turismo-Ayuntamiento de. "Jardín Botánico-Histórico La Concepción (La Concepción Historical-Botanical Gardens)". www.malagaturismo.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 12 January 2021.
- Malaga, Area de Turismo-Ayuntamiento de. "Ataranzanas Central Market". www.malagaturismo.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 12 January 2021.
- Malaga, Area de Turismo-Ayuntamiento de. "Cementerio Inglés (English Cemetery)". www.malagaturismo.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 12 January 2021.
- Malaga, Area de Turismo-Ayuntamiento de. "San Miguel Cemetery". www.malagaturismo.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 12 January 2021.
- "Estadística del Padrón Continuo a 1 de enero de 2018. Datos por municipios. Población por sexo, municipios y país de nacionalidad. 29. Málaga".
- "Málaga Population Information". Malaga.com. Retrieved 8 April 2011.
- Cenizo, Néstor. "Francisco de la Torre, reelegido alcalde de Málaga". eldiario.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 2 February 2020.
- Hoy, Málaga (9 April 2019). "La Casona del Parque de Málaga, primer centenario". Málaga Hoy (in Spanish). Retrieved 2 February 2020.
- "The PTA in numbers". www.pta.es. Archived from the original on 3 May 2017. Retrieved 7 August 2018.
- "Málaga calls on the doors of the Anglo-saxon business world". Laopiniondemalaga.es. Retrieved 8 April 2011.
- Málaga Horizonte 2012
- Empresas en el PTA Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine – Parque Tecnológico de Andalucía
- "Málaga compite con Dallas y Shanghai en acoger un laboratorio de investigación genética" (in Spanish). 23 September 2016. Retrieved 18 October 2016.
- "Destacados". Anuarieco.lacaixa.comunicacions.com. Archived from the original on 22 February 2009. Retrieved 23 June 2017.
- Malaga, Area de Turismo-Ayuntamiento de. "History of Holy Week". www.malagaturismo.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 13 January 2021.
- Malaga, Area de Turismo-Ayuntamiento de. "Málaga Fair". www.malagaturismo.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 12 January 2021.
- "Málaga Festivals". Malaga.com. Retrieved 8 April 2011.
- Málaga, La Opinión de. "Gastronomía marenga: espetos y chiringuitos". www.laopiniondemalaga.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 2 February 2020.
- "En busca de los mejores espetos". EFEAgro Información agroalimentaria (in Spanish). Retrieved 2 February 2020.
- "El espeto malagueño, más cerca de ser Patrimonio Cultural Inmaterial de la Humanidad". LaSexta (in Spanish). 20 February 2018. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
- "World Transplant Games Federation | 2017 Summer WTG Malaga". World Transplant Games Federation (wtgf.org). Archived from the original on 21 August 2016. Retrieved 4 April 2017.
- "Málaga City Information". Malaga.com. Retrieved 8 April 2011.
- Kassam, Ashifa (27 March 2015). "City of museums: Málaga bets on culture to draw tourists and talent". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 June 2016.
- "Malaga City – Museums". andalucia.com. Retrieved 19 June 2016.
- "The Most Visited Places in Malaga" (PDF). marbesol.com. Retrieved 14 August 2018.
- "Cuatro nuevos colegios se incorporarán a la Red de centros bilingües de Málaga". europapress.es. 13 April 2018. Retrieved 12 August 2018.
- "Siete colegios y cinco institutos se incorporan a la red de centros bilingües en Málaga". diariosur.es. 20 August 2016. Retrieved 12 August 2018.
- "Escuela de Arte San Telmo". escueladeartesantelmo.es. Retrieved 12 August 2018.
- "Conservatorio Manuel Carra". conservatoriomanuelcarra.es. Retrieved 12 August 2018.
- "Conservatorio Profesional de Danza de Málaga". cpdmalaga.com. Archived from the original on 27 July 2018. Retrieved 12 August 2018.
- "Conservatorio Superior de Música de Málaga". conservatoriosuperiormalaga.com. Retrieved 12 August 2018.
- "ESAEM Escuela Superior de Artes Escénicas de Málaga". esaem.com. Retrieved 12 August 2018.
- "El verano incrementa la llegada de estudiantes de español a la Costa del Sol". europapress.es. 6 August 2018. Retrieved 12 August 2018.
- Calvo-Sotelo, Pablo Campos (2011). Identidad, innovación y entorno en la universidad Española. Proyectos de Campus de Excelencia Internacional (in Spanish). Ministerio de Educación. pp. 96–97. ISBN 978-84-369-5224-7.
- "Datos generales de la UMA". Universidad de Málaga.
- Hoy, Málaga (9 April 2012). "La UMA llama a las urnas a 40.000 universitarios". Málaga Hoy (in Spanish). Retrieved 2 February 2020.
- "UMA Faculties". uma.es. Retrieved 12 August 2018.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2 May 2020. Retrieved 5 July 2009.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 1 April 2015. Retrieved 1 June 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Travelling From Malaga Airport AGP". Dragon Cars. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
- "Travelling From Malaga Airport to the City Center". Out of Comfort Zone. 17 December 2017. Retrieved 17 December 2017.
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- "El Puerto de Málaga refuerza desde este martes sus conexiones con Melilla". Diario Sur (in Spanish). 24 June 2019. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
- "EMT Málaga". Emtmalaga.es. Archived from the original on 28 March 2013. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
- es:EMT Málaga
- "Malaga Area Metropolitan Transport Consortium". Ctmam.es. 20 June 2014. Retrieved 23 June 2017.
- Govan, Fiona (31 July 2014). "Better late than never, Malaga inaugurates new metro". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 4 April 2017.
- "Malaga Public Transportation Statistics". Global Public Transit Index by Moovit. Retrieved 19 June 2017. Material was copied from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
- "Relaciones Institucionales Internacionales: Ciudades hermanadas" (official website) (in Spanish). Málaga, Spain: Ayuntamiento de Málaga. Archived from the original on 4 February 2015. Retrieved 4 February 2015.
- "Nueva Orleans y Mobile se suman al centro de interpretación Bernardo de Gálvez de la Diputación". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). 6 May 2016. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
- "Popayán (Colombia)". relacionesinternacionales.malaga.eu. Ayuntamiento de Málaga. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
- "Passau (Alemania)". relacionesinternacionales.malaga.eu. Ayuntamiento de Málaga. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
- "Zacatecas (México)". relacionesinternacionales.malaga.eu. Ayuntamiento de Málaga. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
- Collado Campaña, Francisco (2012). "Bizancio y la provincia de Spania: capital Málaga?". Gibralfaro. Málaga: Universidad de Málaga (78). ISSN 1696-9294.
- Corrales Aguilar, Pilar (2003). "Datos para la reconstrucción histórica de la Málaga romana: una aproximación a su urbanismo" (PDF). Mainake. Málaga: Diputación Provincial de Málaga (25): 377–392. ISSN 0212-078X.
- The Alhambra from the Ninth Century to Yusuf I (1354). vol. 1. Saqi Books, 1997.
- Guia Viva, Andalucia, Anaya Touring Club, April 2001.
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Missing or empty
- Huss, Werner (1985), Geschichte der Karthager, Munich: C.H. Beck, ISBN 9783406306549. (in German)