Agadir (Arabic: أكادير or Arabic: أݣادير or Arabic: أغادير, romanized: ʾagādīr; Berber languages: ⴰⴳⴰⴷⵉⵔ, romanized: agadir) is a major city in Morocco. It is located on the shore of the Atlantic Ocean near the foot of the Atlas Mountains, just north of the point where the Souss River flows into the ocean and 509 kilometres (316 mi) south of Casablanca. Agadir is the capital of the Agadir Ida-U-Tanan Prefecture and of the Souss-Massa economic region. The majority of its inhabitants speak Amazigh language, one of the two official languages of Morocco. It was the locale for the Agadir Crisis of 1911 between France and Germany that presaged the First World War.
Location in Morocco
|Coordinates: 30°26′N 9°36′W|
|Prefecture||Agadir-Ida Ou Tanane|
|Elevation||74 m (243 ft)|
|• Rank||10th in Morocco|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|Website||Agadir (in Arabic and French)|
Agadir is one of the major urban centres of Morocco. The municipality of Agadir recorded a population of 924,000 in the 2014 Moroccan census. According to the 2004 census, there were 346,106 inhabitants in that year and the population of the Prefecture of Agadir-Ida Outanane was 487,954 inhabitants.
The city was destroyed by an earthquake in 1960; it has been completely rebuilt with mandatory seismic standards. It is now the largest seaside resort in Morocco, where foreign tourists and many residents are attracted by an unusually mild year-round climate. Since 2010 it has been well served by low-cost flights and a motorway from Tangier. The city attracts all walks of life; it has had an annual growth rate of over 6% per year in housing demand while housing production barely exceeds 3.4%.
Very little remains of the Phoenician language, but numismatic inscriptions record that they knew the site as a Gadir or Agadir (Phoenician: 𐤀𐤂𐤃𐤓, ʾgdr), meaning "The Wall", "The Compound", or (by metonymy) "The Stronghold". Borrowed by the Berber languages, this became the agadir (Tamazight: "wall"; Shilha: "fortified granary") common in North African place names. (The Israeli town Gedera shares a similar etymology, as well as the Moroccan city Agadir). The Carthaginians continued to use this name and all subsequent names have derived from it. The Greek cothon refers to a Carthaginian type of fortified basin that can be seen at ancient sites such as Motya.
The oldest cartographic mention of Agadir is on a map from 1325: at the approximate location of the modern city there was an indication of a place called Porto Mesegina, after the name of a Berber tribe already mentioned in the 12th century, the Mesguina, that is to say the Ksima.
In 1505, the Portuguese, who were already installed on the Moroccan coast, founded a trading post and a fort at the foot of the hill to the sea, Santa Cruz do Cabo de Aguer on the site of the now-vanished neighborhood of Founti (named after the Portuguese word fonte meaning fountain) under a governor.
Quickly, the Portuguese were exposed to the hostility of the tribes of the region. From 1530, they were blockaded in Santa Cruz. Portuguese weakness showed itself on 12 March 1541 when Sherif Saâdien Mohammed ash-Sheikh captured the fortress of Santa Cruz de Aguer. Six hundred Portuguese survivors were taken prisoner, including the governor, Guterre de Monroy, and his daughter, Dona Mecia. The captives were redeemed by the holy men mostly from Portugal. Dona Mecia, whose husband was killed during the battle, became the wife of Sheikh Mohammed ash-Sheikh but died in childbirth in 1544. In the same year, Mohammed ash-Sheikh released the Governor Guterre de Monroy, whom he had befriended.
The Portuguese possessions in Morocco, acquired between 1505 and 1520, were regressing. After the loss of Agadir, the Portuguese were obliged to abandon Safi and Azemmour. Morocco was beginning to be less important for Portugal which now turned to India and Brazil. After 1550, the Portuguese no longer held anything in Morocco other than Mazagan (now El Jadida), Tangier and Ceuta.
The story of the Portuguese presence (from the installation in 1505 until the fall on 12 March 1541) is described in manuscript (published for the first time, with French translation, by Pierre de Cenival in 1934) entitled "Este He O Origem e Comeco e Cabo da Villa de Santa Cruz do Cabo de Gue D'Agoa de Narba", written by anonymous who was captured in 12-III-34 and was five years imprisoned in Taroudannt (cf. "Santa Cruz do Cabo de Gue d'Agoa de Narba – Estudo e Crónica", Joao Marinho e Santos, José Manuel Azevedo e Silva e Mohammed Nadir, bilingual edition, Viseu 2007).
In 1572, the Casbah was built on top of the hill by Moulay Abdallah al-Ghalib, successor to Mohammed ash-Sheikh. It was now called Agadir N'Ighir, literally: fortified granary of the hill in Tachelhit.
In the 17th century, during the reign of the Berber dynasty of Tazerwalt, Agadir was a harbour of some importance, expanding its trade with Europe. There was, however, no real port nor a wharf. Agadir traded mainly in sugar, wax, copper, hides and skins. Europeans brought their manufactured goods, particularly weapons and textiles. Under the reign of Sultan Moulay Ismail (1645–1727) and his successors, the trade with France, until then an active partner regressed to the English and the Dutch.
In 1731, the town was completely destroyed by an earthquake. The harbour of Agadir was then ordered to be closed when Essaouira was established farther north.
In 1746, the Dutch set up a trading post at the foot of the Casbah under the authority of the Sultan, and undoubtedly participated in the restoration of the city. Above the door of the Casbah, the Dutch inscription can still be seen with its transcription in Arabic: "Vreest God ende eert den Kooning", which means "Fear God and honour the King", and the date 1746.
After a long period of prosperity during the reigns of the Saadian and Alawite dynasties, Agadir declined from 1760 because of the pre-eminence given to the competing port of Essaouira by the Alawite Sultan Mohammed ben Abdallah who wanted to punish the Souss for rebelling against his authority. This decline lasted a century and a half. In 1789, a European traveler gave a brief description of Agadir: "It is now a ghost town, there are no more than a few houses and these are crumbling into ruins".
In 1881, Sultan Moulay Hassan reopened the harbour to trade in order to supply the expeditions he planned in the south. These expeditions, which were to reassert his authority over the Souss tribes and counter the plans of English and Spanish, were held in 1882 and 1886.
In 1884, Charles de Foucauld described in Reconnaissance au Maroc (Reconnaissance in Morocco) his rapid passage to Agadir from the east:
I walk along the shore to Agadir Irir. The road passes below the city, half-way between it and Founti: Founti is a miserable hamlet, a few fishermen's huts; Agadir, despite its white enclosure which gives it the air of a city is, I am told, a poor village depopulated and without trade.
On the pretext of a call for help from German companies in the valley of the Souss, Germany decided on 1 July 1911, to extend its interests in Morocco and assert a claim on the country. It sent to the Bay of Agadir, (which harbour was, until 1881, closed to foreign trade) the SMS Panther which was quickly joined by the cruiser Berlin. Very strong international reaction, particularly from Great Britain, surprised Germany and triggered the Agadir Crisis between France and Germany. War threatened. After tough negotiations, a Franco-German treaty was finally signed on 4 November 1911, giving a free hand to France, who would be able to establish its protectorate over Morocco in return for giving up some colonies in Africa. It was only then that the gunboat Panther and the cruiser Berlin left the bay of Agadir.
Due to a miscalculation, the German sales representative Hermann Wilberg, who was sent to provide the pretext for the intervention, only arrived at Agadir three days after the Panther arrived.
In 1913, the cities (Agadir N'Ighir and Founti) totalled less than a thousand inhabitants. On 15 June 1913 French troops landed in Agadir. In 1916, the first pier was built near Founti – a simple jetty, later known as the "Portuguese jetty", which remained until the end of the 20th century. After 1920, under the French protectorate, a port was built and the city saw its first development with the construction of the old Talborjt district located on the plateau at the foot of the hill. Two years later, beside Talborjt along the faultline of the river Tildi construction of the popular district of Yahchech began.
In the years from 1930, a modern central city began to be built according to the plans of the urban planner Henri Prost, director of the Urban Planning Department of the Protectorate, and his deputy Albert Laprade: a horseshoe layout based on the waterfront around a large avenue perpendicular to the waterfront – the Avenue Lyautey, since renamed Avenue du Général Kettani. In the 1950s, urban development continued under the direction of the Director of Urban Planning Morocco, Michel Ecochard.
After 1950 and the opening of the new commercial port, the city grew with fishing, canning, agriculture, and mining. It also began to open up to tourism thanks to its climate and beautiful hotels. Several years later from 1950 to 1956 Agadir organised the Grand Prix of Agadir and, from 1954 to 1956, the Moroccan Grand Prix.
By 1960, Agadir numbered over 40,000 residents when at 15 minutes to midnight on 29 February 1960, it was again almost totally destroyed by an earthquake of magnitude 5.7 on the Richter scale that lasted 15 seconds, burying the city and killing more than a third of the population. The death toll was estimated at 15,000. The earthquake destroyed the ancient Casbah.
On seeing the destruction in Agadir, King Muhammad V of Morocco declared: "If Destiny decided the destruction of Agadir, its rebuilding depends on our Faith and Will."
Agadir after 1960
The current city was rebuilt 1.6 kilometres (1 mi) further south, led by the architects associated with GAMMA, including Jean-François Zevaco, Elie Azagury, Pierre Coldefy, and Claude Verdugo, with consultation from Le Corbusier. Agadir became a large city of over half a million by 2004, with a large port with four basins: the commercial port with a draft of 17 metres, triangle fishing, fishing port, and a pleasure boat port with marina. Agadir was the premier sardine port in the world in the 1980s and has a beach stretching over 10 km with fine seafront promenades. Its climate has 340 days of sunshine per year which allows for swimming all year round. The winter is warm and in summer, haze is common.
With Marrakech, Agadir is a very important centre for tourism to Morocco, and the city is the most important fishing port in the country. Business is also booming with the export of citrus fruit and vegetables produced in the fertile valley of Souss. With its white buildings, wide flowered boulevards, modern hotels and European style cafes, Agadir is world class, active and dynamic. The bay of Agadir and the nearby Bay of Taghazout are among the most beautiful bays in Africa.
The fishing port is a major sardine port. The commercial port is also known for its exports of cobalt, manganese, zinc and citrus products. The Avenue du Port, the main artery of the Anza district, is surrounded by canneries and has many popular small restaurants adjacent to the fish market. The city has a cement company called Ciments du Maroc (CIMAR), a subsidiary of the Italian group Italcementi which is in process of being transferred to a new plant 40 kilometres (25 mi) from the city. There is also a shipyard in the port and the only merchant marine school in Morocco.
Agadir is served by Al Massira Airport, 23 kilometres (14 mi) from the city.
The current conurbation of Agadir is actually a combination of four communes:
- the former town of Agadir city
- the urban commune of Anza
- the rural town of Ben Sergao and
- the rural town of Tikiwine
This area is named after the old district of Talborjt (meaning "small fort" in local Berber, in remembrance of the water tower which was first built on the plateau in the former Talborjt). Lively, the New Talborjt which has been rebuilt away from the Old Talborjt, has as a main artery the Boulevard Mohammed Sheikh Saadi, named after the victor against the Portuguese in 1541. Other major avenues are the Avenue President Kennedy and the Avenue February 29. There is also the Mohammed V mosque, the Olhão garden (Olhão is a coastal city in southern Portugal that is twinned with Agadir) and its memorial museum and the garden Ibn Zaydoun. Some good hotels and restaurants have been built on the main arteries.
- Swiss Village: the oldest district of villas bordered by the Avenue of FAR (Royal Armed Forces), Avenue Mokhtar Soussi, Cairo Avenue, and the Avenue of the United Nations.
- Mixed Sector District: the French and Spanish Consulates are in this district.
- Founty or "Bay of palm trees": a seaside area with residential villas, large hotels, holiday homes, and the royal palace.
- High Founty: a new district of buildings and residential villas, located in the new city centre between the new Court of Appeal and the Marjane supermarket.
- Illigh: to the east in front of the Hassan II hospital, is a residential area of large villas, housing the "new bourgeoisie".
- Charaf: The Hassan II hospital is in this district.
- Les Amicales: also known as the "city of government employees"
- Dakhla: close to the faculty of Ibnou Zohr, it has a great mix between modern buildings, ordinary villas, and studio apartments. This new town created in 1979 was the last work before his death of the renowned French urbanist, Gérald Hanning.
- Hay Mohammadi: a new urbanization zone in Agadir with a villa zone and a zone for large groups of buildings to frame the extension of the Avenue des FAR in the northwest.
- Adrar City: a new district next to the Metro hypermarket.
- Other neighborhoods: Amsernat, Lakhyam, Erac Bouargane, Massira, Alhouda, Tilila, Tassila, Ben Sergao, Riad Assalam, Islane, Ihchach (Yachech) Nahda, Anza, Assaka, Bir Anzarane, Tikouine, Zaitoune and Tadart.
The Casbah (Agadir Oufella, Agadir le haut, Agadir N'Ighir, or Agadir de la colline) was, along with Founti by the sea, the oldest district of Agadir. An authentic fortress with winding streets and lively, the Casbah was built in 1572 by Moulay Abdallah al-Ghalib. Above the front door; today, the original inscription in Arabic and in English reads: "Fear God and honour the King."
Of this fortress there remains, after the earthquake of 29 February 1960, a restored long high wall that surrounds land that is not buildable. The view, however, is exceptional over the bay of Agadir and the ports. The old people of Agadir remember the famous "Moorish café" of the Casbah and its panoramic view.
The hill bears the inscription in Arabic: "God, Country, King" which, like the walls, is illuminated at night.
Overlooking the waterfront and Wadi Tildi, this old district (whose name is sometimes spelled Talbordjt) was once a shopping area and very lively with its large square where there was a weekly market, hotels, schools, mosque 90% of the buildings in Old Talborjt were destroyed or severely damaged by the earthquake in 1960. Razed to the ground after the earthquake and now overgrown, it is classified as non-buildable area. Its main thoroughfare, the Avenue El Moun stretches over 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) and serves only for driving schools that teach their students to drive.
Souk El Had
This is the largest market in the region. It has about 6,000 small shops. It is surrounded by walls and has several entrances. It is organized into different sectors: furniture, crafts, clothing, vegetables, meat, spices etc. It is possible to find all kinds of handicrafts and traditional decorations.
The walls have been restored and the interior design is being finished.
La Médina is a handicrafts space created in 1992 by the Italian artist Coco Polizzi, at Ben Sergao, a district close to Agadir 4.5 kilometres (2.8 mi) from the city centre. Built using techniques of traditional Berber construction, it is a kind of small open-air museum, on five hectares and home to artisan workshops, a museum, individual residences, a small hotel, and an exotic garden.
|Name||Geographic code||Type||Households||Population (2004)||Foreign population||Moroccan population||Notes|
|Aourir||001.05.03.||Rural commune||5571||27483||55||27428||21810 residents live in the center, called Aourir; 5673 residents live in rural areas.|
|Drargua||001.05.09.||Rural commune||6910||37115||1||37114||17071 residents live in the center, called Drargua; 20044 residents live in rural areas.|
Agadir features a hot semiarid climate (Köppen: BSh) with warm summers and mild winters. Located along the Atlantic Ocean, Agadir has a very temperate climate. The daytime temperature generally stays in the 20s °C (70s °F) every day, with the winter highs typically reaching 20.4 °C or 68.7 °F in December and January.
Rainfall is almost entirely confined to the winter months and is heavily influenced by the NAO, with negative NAO indices producing wet winters and positive NAO correlating with drought. For instance, in the wettest month on record of December 1963, as much as 314.7 millimetres or 12.39 inches fell, whereas in the positive NAO year from July 1960 to June 1961 a mere 46.7 millimetres or 1.84 inches occurred over the twelve months. The wettest year has been from July 1955 to June 1956 with 455.5 millimetres or 17.93 inches.
Occasionally however, the region experiences winds from the Sahara called Chergui, which may exceptionally and for two to five days raise the heat above 40 °C or 104 °F.
|Climate data for Agadir (1961–1990)|
|Average high °C (°F)||20.4
|Daily mean °C (°F)||14.1
|Average low °C (°F)||7.9
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||45.5
|Average precipitation days||5.4||5.6||5.1||3.7||1.4||1.3||0.2||0.4||1.6||4.1||5.3||5.3||39.4|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||230.5||223.6||269.5||281.8||295.7||269.0||269.8||253.9||242.4||245.6||218.7||228.5||3,029|
The Timitar festival, a festival of Amazigh and music from around the world, has been held in Agadir every summer since its inception in July 2004.
Other cultural events in Agadir are:
- Noiz Makerz concert of urban music.
- Breaking South national break-dancing championship
- International Documentary Film Festival in November (FIDADOC)
- Film Festival for immigration
- International Festival of University Theatre of Agadir
- Concert for Tolerance (November)
- Festival of Laughter
- International Salon of Art of Photography (Clubphoto d'Agadir)
- Musée de Talborjt "La Casbah"
- Musée Bert Flint
- Le Musée des Arts Berberes
- Musee Municipal de Agadir
- La Medina d'Agadir
The city of Agadir has a university: the University Ibn Zohr which includes a Faculty of Science, Faculty of medicine and pharmacy, Faculty of Law, Economics and Social Sciences, the Faculty of Arts and Humanities, and the multi-disciplined Faculty of Ouarzazate.
There are also establishments of higher education such as:
- the National School of Applied Sciences (ENSA)
- the National School of Business and Management (ENCG)
- the Graduate School of Agadir technology (ESTA).
There is an international French school: the French School of Agadir and also public schools: Youssef Ben Tachfine School, Mohammed Reda-Slaoui School, and the Al-Idrissi Technical College.
There is a range of highschools:
- Groupe Scolaire Paul Gauguin Agadir (CLOSED in 2014)
- Groupe Scolaire LE DEFI
- Lycée Lala Meryem Agadir
- Lycée Qualifiant Youssef Ben Tachfine
- Lycée Technique Al Idrissi
- Lycée Al Qalam
- Lycée Al Hanane
- Lycée Français d'Agadir
- Lycée Anoual
- Lycée Zerktouni
- Lycée Mohamed Derfoufi
- Lycée Bader Elouefaq
- Lycée Ibn Maja
- Lycée Mounib
- See Hassania Agadir the Agadir football club and
- stade Adrar, Grand Stadium of Agadir, the new stadium for Agadir.
- Royal Tennis Club of Agadir
Notable natives and residents
- Hassan Kachloul, former Morocco national football team player, most notably playing for Southampton, Aston Villa and Wolves.
- Abbes Kabbage (died 1 May 1984) was a regional leader of the Istiqlal Party before joining the UNFP in 1960.
- Abdelaziz Lahrech (18 November 1918 – 14 March 1994), the PDI regional leader of the Party for Democracy and Independence
- Mohammed Khair-Eddine (1941–1995), Moroccan writer
- Abdellah Aourik, painter.
- Val Fouad, author of "Agadir", published by Editions Alan Sutton.
- Dominique Strauss-Kahn spent his childhood there from 1951 to 1960.
- Saphia Azzedine, screenwriter and writer, born in 1979 in Agadir
- Jacques Bensimon, Canadian filmmaker, was born in Agadir
- Michel Vieuchange, French adventurer and explorer, died in Agadir in 1930
- Said Aoubraim, Artist photographer
- Hicham Ouazal, Moroccan adventurer and explorer
- Mohamed Bensaid Ait Idder, Moroccan politician and activist
- Issam Chebake – Moroccan footballer
- Walid Azaro - Moroccan footballer
- Jalal Daoudi - Moroccan footballer
- Hicham El Majhad - Moroccan footballer
Beaches outside Agadir
Some of the most beautiful beaches in Morocco are located to the north of Agadir. Areas also known for excellent surfing are located near Taghazout village to Cap Ghir. Many smaller and clean beaches are located along this coast. Some of them between Agadir and Essaouira are: Agadir Beach, Tamaounza (12 km), Aitswal Beach, Imouran (17 km), Taghazout (19 km), Bouyirdn (20 km), Timzguida (22 km), Aghroud (30 km), Imiouadar (27 km).
Places to visit
- The view of the city and the bay from Agadir Oufella (Casbah)
- Bert Flint Museum on Boulevard Mohammed V
- Valley of the Birds, a pleasant bird park stretching along the Avenue of Administrations, between Boulevard Hassan II and 20 August
- The garden of Ibn Zaidoun
- Mohammed V Mosque, on the Boulevard President Kennedy
- Souk el Had
- The little train of Agadir: circuit around the city
- Amazigh (Berber) Heritage Museum at the Ayt Souss Square
- The garden of Olhão or "Garden of Portugal" and its memorial museum in Talborjt
- The marina with its Moorish architecture and shops
- Loubnane mosque
- Wall of commemoration
- The city of Taroudannt 80 km to the east, along the Souss valley
- Palm Oasis of Tiout 20 km to the east of Taroudannt and 100 km from Agadir
- Imouzzer Ida Ou Tanane a small town 60 km northeast of Agadir
- The beaches of Taghazout and Tamraght. Taghazout-Argana Bay, a large tourism development, was launched in 2007
- The city of Tiznit 90 km to the south and Tafraout 80 km from Tiznit, a magnificent site of pink granite rocks
- The Souss-Massa National Park and Oued Massa, about 70 km to the south and the fishing village of Tifnit
- Legzira beach with spectacular natural arches, 150 km south of Agadir
- Sidi Ifni, 160 km south of Agadir on the coast
- The city of Essaouira 175 km north of Agadir on the coast
- Dephinarium Agadir Dolphin World Morocco
Movies filmed in Agadir
- 1934: Le Grand Jeu by Jacques Feyder
- 1954–1955: Oasis by Yves Allégret
- 1969: Du soleil plein les yeux by Michel Boisrond
- 1988: Y'a bon les blancs by Marco Ferreri
- 2006: Days of Glory by Rachid Bouchareb
- 2009: Les Filles du désert by Hubert Besson, an episode of the television series Plus belle la vie
- 2011 Agadir Bombay by Myriam Bakir
Agadir has eight sister cities
- Mar del Plata, Argentina
- Miami, United States
- Oakland, United States
- Olhão, Portugal
- Nantes, France
- Stavanger, Norway
- Shiraz, Iran
- Vigan, Philippines
- Lyon, France
In popular culture
Agadir is referenced in the Mike Batt song "Ride to Agadir".
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