Cebuano language

Cebuano[7] (/sɛˈbwɑːn/), also referred to by most of its speakers as Bisaya or Binisaya (translated into English as Visayan, though this should not be confused with other Visayan languages),[8] is an Austronesian language, spoken in the southern Philippines. Specifically, it flourishes in Central Visayas, western parts of Eastern Visayas and on most of Mindanao. It originated on the island of Cebu, and now is spoken primarily by various Visayan ethnolinguistic groups who are native to those areas, primarily the Cebuanos.[9] While Filipino (i. e., Tagalog) has the largest number of speakers among the languages of the Philippines, Cebuano had the largest native-language-speaking population in the Philippines, from the 1950s until about the 1980s.[10] It is by far the most widely spoken of the Visayan languages.

Cebuan,[1] Sebwano,[2] Visayan
Sugboanon, Bisayâ, Binisayâ, Bisayâng Sugboanon, Sinugboanong Binisayâ, Sinibwano
Native toPhilippines
RegionCentral Visayas, eastern Negros Occidental, western parts of Eastern Visayas, and most parts of Mindanao
Native speakers
19,665,453 (2010)[6]
    • Standard Cebuano (Cebu province dialect);
    • Urban Cebuano (Metro Cebu dialect);
    • Negrense Cebuano (Negros Oriental dialect);
    • Leyteño Cebuano (Kana);
    • Mindanao Cebuano (includes Davaoeño Cebuano)
Official status
Recognised minority
language in
Regulated by
Language codes
ISO 639-2ceb
ISO 639-3ceb
Cebuano-speaking area in the Philippines

Cebuano is the lingua franca of the Central Visayas, western parts of Eastern Visayas, some western parts of Palawan and most parts of Mindanao. The name Cebuano is derived from the island of Cebu, which is the original locus of the language.[11][12] Cebuano is also the primary language in Western Leyte — noticeably in Ormoc, and in other municipalities surrounding the city; most of the residents in the area refer to the Cebuano language by their own demonyms, for example, as "Ormocanon" in Ormoc, and as "Albuerahanon" in Albuera.[13] Cebuano is assigned the ISO 639-2 three-letter code ceb, but not a ISO 639-1 two-letter code.


The term Cebuano derives from "Cebu"+"ano", a Latinate calque, reflective of the Philippines's Spanish colonial heritage. In common or everyday parlance, especially by those speakers from outside of the island of Cebu, Cebuano is more often referred to as Bisaya. Bisaya, however, may become a source of confusion as many other Visayan languages may also be referred to as Bisaya even though they are not mutually intelligible with speakers of what is referred to by linguists as Cebuano. Cebuano in this sense applies to all speakers of vernaculars mutually intelligible with the vernaculars of Cebu island, regardless of origin or location, as well as to the language they speak.

The term Cebuano has garnered some objections. For example, generations of Cebuano speakers in northern Mindanao (Dipolog, Dapitan, Misamis Occidental and Misamis Oriental together with coastal areas of Butuan) say that their ancestry traces back to Cebuano speakers native to their place and not from immigrants or settlers from the Visayas. Furthermore, they ethnically refer to themselves as Bisaya and not Cebuano, and their language as Binisaya.[14]

The language is also sometimes referred to in English sources as Cebuan (/sɛˈbən/ seh-BOO-ən).


Cebuano is an Austronesian language; it is generally classified as one of the five primary branches of the Visayan languages, part of the wider genus of Philippine languages.[15]


Cebuano is spoken in the provinces of Cebu, Bohol, Siquijor, Negros Oriental, northeastern Negros Occidental, (as well as the municipality of Hinoba-an and the cities of Kabankalan and Sipalay to a great extent, alongside Ilonggo), southern Masbate, many portions of Leyte, Biliran, parts of Samar, and large parts of Mindanao, the second largest island of the Philippines.[11] Furthermore, "a large portion of the urban population of Zamboanga, Cagayan de Oro,Davao, Surigao and Cotabato is Cebuano speaking".[11] Some dialects of Cebuano have different names for the language. Cebuano speakers from Cebu are mainly called "Cebuano" while those from Bohol are "Boholano". Cebuano speakers in Leyte identify their dialect as Kanâ meaning that (Leyte Cebuano or Leyteño). Speakers in Mindanao and Luzon refer to the language simply as Binisaya or Bisaya.[13]


Cebuano originates from the island of Cebu.[12] The language "has spread from its base in Cebu" to nearby islands[12] and also Bohol, eastern Negros, western and southern parts of Leyte and most parts of Mindanao, especially the northern, southern, and eastern parts of the large island.[11]

Cebuano was first documented in a list of vocabulary compiled by Antonio Pigafetta, an Italian explorer who was part of and documented Ferdinand Magellan's 1521 expedition.[16] Spanish missionaries started to write in the language during the early 18th century. As a result of the eventual 300-year Spanish colonial period, Cebuano contains many words of Spanish origin.

While there is evidence of a pre-Spanish writing system for the language, its use appears to have been sporadic. Spaniards recorded the Visayan script[17] which was called Kudlit-kabadlit by the natives.[18] The colonists called the ancient Filipino script "Tagalog letters", regardless of the language for which it was used. This script died out by the 17th century as it was gradually supplanted by the Latin script.

The language was heavily influenced by the Spanish language during the period of colonialism from 1565 to 1898. With the arrival of Spanish colonists, for example, a Latin-based writing system was introduced alongside a number of Spanish loanwords.[19]



Below is the vowel system of Cebuano with their corresponding letter representation in angular brackets:[14][20][21]

Standard Cebuano vowel phonemes
Front Central Back
Close i i u u
Mid ɛ e o o
Open a a

Sometimes, a may also be pronounced as the open-mid back unrounded vowel /ʌ/ (as in English "gut"); e or i as the near-close near-front unrounded vowel /ɪ/ (as in English "bit"); and o or u as the open-mid back rounded vowel /ɔ/ (as in English "thought") or the near-close near-back rounded vowel /ʊ/ (as in English "hook").[14]

During the precolonial and Spanish period, Cebuano had only three vowel phonemes: /a/, /i/ and /u/. This was later expanded to five vowels with the introduction of Spanish. As a consequence, the vowels o or u, as well as e or i, are still mostly allophones. They can be freely switched with each other without losing their meaning (free variation); though it may sound strange to a native listener, depending on their dialect. The vowel a has no variations, though it can be pronounced subtly differently, as either /a/ or /ʌ/ (and very rarely as /ɔ/ immediately after the consonant /w/). Loanwords, however, are usually more conservative in their orthography and pronunciation (e.g. dyip, "jeepney" from English "jeep", will never be written or spoken as dyep).[14][22]


For Cebuano consonants, all the stops are unaspirated. The velar nasal /ŋ/ occurs in all positions, including at the beginning of a word (e.g. ngano, "why"). The glottal stop /ʔ/ is most commonly encountered in between two vowels, but can also appear in all positions.[14]

Like in Tagalog, glottal stops are usually not indicated in writing. When indicated, it is commonly written as a hyphen or an apostrophe if the glottal stop occurs in the middle of the word (e.g. tu-o or tu'o, "right"). More formally, when it occurs at the end of the word, it is indicated by a circumflex accent if both a stress and a glottal stop occurs at the final vowel (e.g. basâ, "wet"); or a grave accent if the glottal stop occurs at the final vowel, but the stress occurs at the penultimate syllable (e.g. batà, "child").[23][24][25]

Below is a chart of Cebuano consonants with their corresponding letter representation in parentheses:[14][20][21][26]

Standard Cebuano consonants
Bilabial Dental Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m m  n ŋ ng
Stop p pb b  t d k kɡ g ʔ (see text)
Fricative  s h h
j y w w
Rhotic ɾ̪~ r

In certain dialects, /l/ l may be interchanged with /w/ w in between vowels and vice versa depending on the following conditions:[14]

  • If l is in between a and u/o, the vowel succeeding l is usually (but not always) dropped (e.g. lalom, "deep", becomes lawom or lawm).
  • If l is in between u/o and a, it is the vowel that is preceding l that is instead dropped (e.g. bulan, "moon", becomes buwan or bwan)
  • If l is in between two like vowels, the l may be dropped completely and the vowel lengthened. For example, dala ("bring"), becomes da (/d̪aː/); and tulod ("push") becomes tud (/t̪uːd̪/).[14] Except if the l is in between closed syllables or is in the beginning of the penultimate syllable; in which case, the l is dropped along with one of the vowels, and no lengthening occurs. For example, kalatkat, "climb", becomes katkat (/ˈkatkat/ not /ˈkaːtkat/).

A final l can also be replaced with w in certain areas in Bohol (e.g. tambal, "medicine", becomes tambaw). In very rare cases in Cebu, l may also be replaced with y in between the vowels a and e/i (e.g. tingali, "maybe", becomes tingayi).[14]

In some parts of Bohol and Southern Leyte, /j/ y is also often replaced with d͡ʒ j/dy when it is in the beginning of a syllable (e.g. kalayo, "fire", becomes kalajo). It can also happen even if the y is at the final position of the syllable and the word, but only if it is moved to the initial position by the addition of the affix -a. For example, baboy ("pig") can not become baboj, but baboya can become baboja.[14]

All of the above substitutions are considered allophonic and do not change the meaning of the word.[14]

In rarer instances, the consonant d might also be replaced with r when it is in between two vowels (e.g. Boholano ido for standard Cebuano iro, "dog"), but d and r are not considered allophones,[14] though they may have been in the past.[27]


Stress accent is phonemic, so that dapít (adverb) means "near to a place," while dāpit (noun) means "place." dū-ol (verb) means "come near," while du-ól (adverb) means "near" or "close by."



Cebuano is a member of the Philippine languages. Early trade contact resulted in a large number of older loan words from other languages being embedded in Cebuano, like Sanskrit (e.g. sangka, "fight" and bahandi, "wealth", from Sanskrit sanka and bhānda respectively), and Arabic (e.g. salámat, "thanks"; hukom or hukm, "judge").[28]

It has also been influenced by thousands of words from Spanish, such as kurus [cruz] (cross), swerte [suerte] ("luck"), gwapa [guapa], ("beautiful"), merkado [mercado] ("market") and brilyante [brillante] ("brilliant"). It has several hundred loan words from English as well, which are altered to conform to the phonemic inventory of Cebuano: brislit (bracelet), hayskul (high school), syáping (shopping), bakwit (evacuate), and dráyber (driver). However, today, it is more common for Cebuanos to spell out those words in their original English form rather than with spelling that might conform to Cebuano standards.


A few common phrases in Cebuano include:[29]

  • How are you? (used as a greeting) - Komosta?
  • Good morning - Maayong buntag
  • Good afternoon (specifically at 12:00 Noon up to 12:59 PM) - Maayong udto
  • Good afternoon - Maayong hapon
  • Good evening - Maayong gabii
  • Good bye - Ayo-ayo ("Take care", formal), Adios (rare), Babay (informal, corruption of "Goodbye"), Amping ("Take care"), Hangtod sa sunod nga higayon ("Until next time")
  • Thank you - Salamat
  • Many thanks! - Daghang Salamat
  • Thank you very much! - Daghan kaayong salamat
  • You're welcome - Walay sapayan
  • Do not (imperative) - Ayaw
  • Don't know - Ambot
  • Yes - O
  • Maybe - Tingali, Basin
  • No [30][31]
  • Dili - for future verb negation ("will not", "does/do not", "not going to"); and negation of identity, membership, property, relation, or position ("[he/she/it/this/that] is not")
  • Wala - for past and progressive verb negation ("have not", "did not"); and to indicate the absence of ("none", "nothing", "not have", "there is not")
  • Who - Kinsa
  • What - Unsa
  • Where
    • diin - where (past)
    • Ása - where (present)
  • Which - Hain
  • When - Kanus-a
  • How - Giunsa


The de facto Standard Cebuano dialect (sometimes referred to as General Cebuano) is derived from the conservative Sialo vernacular spoken in southeastern Cebu (also known as the Sialo dialect or the Carcar-Dalaguete dialect). It first gained prominence due to its adoption by the Catholic Church as the standard for written Cebuano. It retains the intervocalic /l/.[14] In contrast, the Urban Cebuano dialect spoken by people in Metro Cebu and surrounding areas is characterized by /l/ elision and heavily contracted words and phrases.[14] For example, waláy problema ("no problem") in Standard Cebuano can become way 'blema in Urban Cebuano.

Colloquialisms can also be used to determine the regional origin of the speaker. Cebuano-speaking people from Cagayan de Oro and Dumaguete, for example, say chada or tsada/patsada (roughly translated to the English colloquialism "awesome")[32] and people from Davao City say atchup which also translated to the same English context;[33] meanwhile Cebuanos from Cebu on the other hand say nindot or, sometimes, aníndot. However, this word is also commonly used in the same context in other Cebuano-speaking regions, in effect making this word not only limited in use to Cebu.

There is no standardized orthography for Cebuano, but spelling in print usually follow the pronunciation of Standard Cebuano, regardless of how it is actually spoken by the speaker. For example, baláy ("house") is pronounced /baˈl̪aɪ/ in Standard Cebuano and is thus spelled "baláy", even in Urban Cebuano where it is actually pronounced /ˈbaɪ/.[14]

Cebuano is spoken natively over a large area of the Philippines and thus has numerous regional dialects. It can vary significantly in terms of lexicon and phonology depending on where it is spoken.[14] Increasing usage of spoken English (being the primary language of commerce and education in the Philippines) has also led to the introduction of new pronunciations and spellings of old Cebuano words. Code-switching forms of English and Bisaya (Bislish) are also common among the educated younger generations.[34][35]

There are four main dialectal groups within Cebuano aside from the Standard Cebuano and Urban Cebuano. They are as follows:[36][37][38][39]

Boholano Cebuano

The Boholano dialect of Bohol shares many similarities with the southern form of the standard Cebuano dialect. It is also spoken in some parts of Siquijor. Boholano, especially as spoken in central Bohol, can be distinguished from other Cebuano variants by a few phonetic changes:

  • The semivowel y is pronounced [dʒ]: iya is pronounced [iˈdʒa];
  • Ako is pronounced as [aˈho];
  • Intervocalic l is occasionally pronounced as [w] when following u or o: kulang is pronounced as [ˈkuwaŋ] (the same as Metro Cebu dialect).

Southern Kana

Southern Kana is a dialect of both southern Leyte and Southern Leyte provinces; it is closest to the Mindanao Cebuano dialect at the southern area and northern Cebu dialect at the northern boundaries. Both North and South Kana are subgroups of Leyteño dialect. Both of these dialects are spoken in western and central Leyte and in the southern province, but the Boholano is more concentrated in Maasin City.

Northern Kana

North Kana (found in the northern part of Leyte), is closest to the variety of the language spoken in northern part of Leyte, and shows significant influence from Waray-Waray, quite notably in its pace which speakers from Cebu find very fast, and its more mellow tone (compared to the urban Cebu City dialect, which Kana speakers find "rough"). A distinguishing feature of this dialect is the reduction of /A/ prominent, but an often unnoticed feature of this dialect is the labialisation of /n/ and /ŋ/ into /m/, when these phonemes come before /p/ /b/ and /m/, velarisation of /m/ and /n/ into /ŋ/ before /k/ /ɡ/ and /ŋ/, and the dentalisation of /ŋ/ and /m/ into /n/ before /t/, /d/ and /n/ and sometimes, before vowels and other consonants as well.

Sugbu Kana Waray English
Kan-on Luto Lutô Cooked rice/maize
Kini/kiri Kiri/kini Ini This
Kana Kara'/kana Iton That
Dinhi/Diri ari/dinhi/diri Didi/Ngadi/Aadi/Dinhi Here
Diha/Dinha Dira/diha/dinha Dida/Ngada/Aada There
Bas/Balas Bas/Balas Baras Soil/Sand
Alsa Arsa Alsa To lift
Bulsa Bursa Bulsa Pocket

Mindanao Cebuano

This is the variety of Cebuano spoken throughout most of Mindanao and it is the standard dialect of Cebuano in Northern Mindanao.

Local historical sources found in Cagayan de Oro indicates the early presence of Cebuano Visayans in the Misamis-Agusan coastal areas and their contacts with the Lumads and peoples of the Rajahnate of Butuan. Lumads refer to these Visayan groups as "Dumagat" ("people of the sea") as they came in the area seaborne. It became the lingua franca of precolonial Visayan settlers and native Lumads of the area, and particularly of the ancient Rajahnate of Butuan where Butuanon, a Southern Visayan language, was also spoken. Cebuano influence in Lumad languages around the highlands of Misamis Oriental and Bukidnon was furthered with the influx of Cebuano Visayan laborers and conscripts of the Spaniards from Cebuano areas of Visayas (particularly from Bohol) during the colonial period around the present-day region of Northern Mindanao. It has spread west towards the Zamboanga Peninsula, east towards Caraga, and south towards Bukidnon, Cotabato and the Davao Region in the final years of Spanish colonial rule.

Similar to the Sialo dialect of southeastern Cebu, it is distinctive in retaining /l/ sounds, long since considered archaic in Urban Cebuano. For example: bulan instead of buwan ("moon" or "month"), dalunggan instead of dunggan (ear), and halang instead of hang ("spicy").

Due to the influx of migrants (mostly from Western Visayas and Leyte) during the promotion of settlement in the highlands of Central Mindanao in the 1930s, vocabulary from other Visayan languages (predominantly Hiligaynon and Waray-Waray) have also been incorporated into Mindanao Cebuano. For example, the Hiligaynon sábat ("reply") is commonly used alongside Cebuano tubag, bulig alongside tábang ("help"), and Waray lutô alongside kan-on ("cooked rice"). Though, these influences are only limited to the speakers along the port area and Hiligaynon-speaking communities.

Davaeño Cebuano

A branch of Mindanao Cebuano in Davao is also known as Davaeño (not to be confused with the Davao variant of Chavacano which is called "Castellano Abakay"). Like the Cebuano-speakers of Luzon, it contains some Tagalog vocabulary to a greater extent. Its grammar is similar to other varieties. However, speakers nowadays exhibits stronger Tagalog influence in their speech by substituting most Cebuano words with Tagalog ones. One characteristic is the practice of saying atà, derived from Tagalog yatà to denote uncertainty of a speaker's any aforementioned statements. For instance, "Tuá man atà sa baláy si Manuel" instead of "Tuá man tingáli sa baláy si Manuel". However, the word atà exists in Cebuano though it means 'squid ink' (atà sa nukos).

Other examples include: Nibabâ ko sa jeep sa kanto, tapos niulî ko sa among baláy ("I got off the jeepney at the street corner, and then I went home") instead of Ninaog ko sa jeep sa kanto, dayon niulî ko sa among baláy. The words babâ and naog mean "to disembark" or "to go down", while tapos and dayon mean 'then'; the former is Tagalog, and the latter Cebuano. It also sometimes add some Bagobo and Mansakan vocabulary, like: Madayaw nga adlaw, amigo, kumusta ka? ("Good day, friend, how are you?", literally "Good morning/afternoon") rather than "Maayo nga adlaw, amigo, kamusta ka?" The words madayaw and maayo mean 'good'; the former is Bagobo, and the latter Cebuano.

Negrense Cebuano

The Cebuano dialect in Negros is somewhat similar to the Standard Cebuano (spoken by the majority of the provincial areas of Cebu), with distinct Hiligaynon influences. It is distinctive in retaining /l/ sounds and longer word forms as well. It is the primary dialectal language of the entire province of Negros Oriental and northeastern parts of Negros Occidental (while the majority of the latter province and its bordered areas speaks Hiligaynon/Ilonggo), as well as some parts of Siquijor. Examples of Negrense Cebuano's distinction from other Cebuano dialects is the usage of the word maot instead of batî ("ugly"), alálay, kalálag instead of kalag-kalag (Halloween), kabaló/kahíbaló and kaágo/kaántigo instead of kabawó/kahíbawó ("know").

Luzon Cebuano

There is no specific Luzon dialect, as speakers of Cebuano in Luzon come from many different regions in Central Visayas and Mindanao. Cebuano-speaking people from Luzon in Visayas can be easily recognized primarily by their vocabulary which incorporates Tagalog words. Their accents and some aspects of grammar can also sometimes exhibit Tagalog influence. The dialect is sometimes colloquially known as "Bisalog" (a portmanteau of Tagalog and Binisaya).

Saksak Sinagol

The term saksak sinagol in context means "a collection of miscellaneous things" and literally "inserted mixture", thus those other few Cebuano-influenced regions that have a variety of regional languages uses this term to refer to their dialect with considerable incorporated Cebuano words. Example of these regions are places likes those in Masbate.



Cebuano uses two numeral systems:
The native system (currently) is mostly used in counting the number of things, animate and inanimate, e.g. the number of horses, houses.
The spanish-derived system, on the other hand, is exclusively applied in monetary terminology and is also commonly used in counting from 11 and above.

Number Native Cebuano Spanish-derived
0 walà nulo, cero
1 usá uno
2 duhá dos
3 tuló tres
4 upát cuatro
5 limá cinco
6 unóm seis (sáyis)
7 pitó site (siéte)
8 waló ocho
9 siyám nuybe (nueve)
10 napulò, pulò dyes (diéz)
11 napúlog usá once
12 napúlog duhá doce
13 napúlog tuló trece
14 napúlog upát catórce
15 napúlog limá quince
16 napúlog unóm disesáys (dieceséis)
17 napúlog pitó diecesiete
18 napúlog waló dieceocho
19 napúlog siyám diecenueve
20 kawháan (kaduháan) baynte (beínte)
21 kawháag usá beínte uno
22 kawháag duhá beínte dos
23 kawháag tuló beínte tres
24 kawháag upát beínte cuatro
25 kawháag limá beíntecinco (bayntesingko)
30 katló-an (katuló-an) traynta (treinta)
40 kap-atan (kaupátan) cuarénta
50 kalím-an (kalimá-an) cincuénta
60 kan-uman (ka-unóman) saysénta (sesenta)
70 kapitó-an seténta
80 kawaló-an ochcénta
90 kasiyáman novénta
100 usá ka gatós siyén, sento (cien)
200 duhá ka gatós doséntos (docientos)
300 tuló ka gatós treséntos (treciéntos)
400 upát ka gatós kwatroséntos (cuatrocientos)
500 limá ka gatós kinéntos (quinientos)
1,000 usá ka libo mil
5,000 limá ka libo cinco mil
10,000 usá ka laksà, napulò ka libo diez mil
50,000 limá ka laksà, kalím-an ka libo cincuenta mil
100,000 napulò ka laksà, usá ka gatós ka líbo siyén mil, cien mil
1,000,000 usá ka yukót un millón
1,000,000,000 usá ka wakát billón (mil millones)

See also


  1. "Definition of Cebuan". Retrieved 7 May 2017.
  2. The Komisyon sa Wikang Filipino, the official regulating body of Philippine languages, spells the name of the language as Sebwano.
  3. "Definition of Cebuano". Retrieved 6 September 2018.
  4. "Definition of Cebu". Retrieved 6 September 2018.
  5. "Cebu (province)". Retrieved 6 September 2018.
  6. Philippine Statistics Authority 2014, pp. 29–34.
  7. The Komisyon ng Wikang Filipino, the Philippine government body charged with developing and promoting the national and regional languages of the country, spells the name of the language in Filipino as Sebwano.
  8. Reference to the language as Binisaya is discouraged by many linguists, in light of the many languages within the Visayan language group that might be confounded with the term.
  9. "Cebuano". Ethnologue. Retrieved 6 September 2018.
  10. Ammon, Ulrich; Dittmar, Norbert; Mattheier, Klaus J.; Trudgill, Peter (2006). Sociolinguistics: An International Handbook of the Science of Language and Society. Volume 3. Walter de Gruyter. p. 2018. ISBN 9783110184181.
  11. Wolff 1972
  12. Wolff, John U. (2001). "Cebuano" (PDF). In Garry, Jane; Galvez Rubino, Carl R. (eds.). Facts About the World's Languages: An Encyclopedia of the World's Major Languages, Past and Present. New York: H. W. Wilson.
  13. Pangan, John Kingsley (2016). Church of the Far East. Makati: St. Pauls. p. 19.
  14. Endriga 2010
  15. Zorc, David Paul (1977). The Bisayan Dialects of the Philippines: Subgrouping and Reconstruction. Pacific Linguistics Series C - No. 44. Canberra, Australia: Dept. of Linguistics, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University. doi:10.15144/PL-C44. hdl:1885/146594. ISBN 0858831570.
  16. "Cebuano language, alphabet and pronunciation". Retrieved 22 May 2015.
  17. "Alphabets Des Philippines" (JPG). Retrieved 7 May 2017.
  18. Eleanor, Maria (16 July 2011). "Finding the "Aginid"". Retrieved 7 May 2017.
  19. "Cebuano". Archived from the original on 7 April 2015. Retrieved 22 May 2015.
  20. "Cebuano Phonetics and Orthography" (PDF). Dila. Retrieved 16 September 2016.
  21. Thompson, Irene (11 July 2013). "Cebuano". About World Languages. Retrieved 16 September 2016.
  22. Steinkrüger, Patrick O. (2008). "Hispanisation processes in the Philippines". In Stolz, Thomas; Bakker, Dik; Palomo, Rosa Salas (eds.). Hispanisation: The Impact of Spanish on the Lexicon and Grammar of the Indigenous Languages of Austronesia and the Americas. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 203–236. ISBN 9783110207231.
  23. Morrow, Paul (16 March 2011). "The basics of Filipino pronunciation: Part 2 of 3 • accent marks". Pilipino Express. Retrieved 18 July 2012.
  24. Nolasco, Ricardo M.D. Grammar notes on the national language (PDF).
  25. Schoellner, Joan; Heinle, Beverly D., eds. (2007). Tagalog Reading Booklet (PDF). Simon & Schister's Pimsleur. pp. 5–6. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 November 2013. Retrieved 16 September 2016.
  26. Bollas, Abigail A. (2013), Comparative Analysis on the Phonology of Tagalog, Cebuano, and Itawis, University of the Philippines - Diliman
  27. Verstraelen, Eugene (1961). "Some further remarks about the L-feature". Philippine Studies. 9 (1): 72–77.
  28. Kuizon, Jose G. (1964). "The Sanskrit Loan-Words in the Cebuano-Bisayan Language". Asian Folklore Studies. 23 (1): 111–158. doi:10.2307/1177640. JSTOR 1177640.
  29. "Useful Cebuano phrases". Omniglot. Retrieved 25 December 2016.
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