List of languages by first written accounts

This is a list of languages arranged by the approximate dates of the oldest existing texts recording a complete sentence in the language. It does not include undeciphered scripts, though there are various claims without wide acceptance, which, if substantiated, would push backward the first attestation of certain languages. It also does not include inscriptions consisting of isolated words or names from a language. In most cases, some form of the language had already been spoken (and even written) considerably earlier than the dates of the earliest extant samples provided here.

A written record may encode a stage of a language corresponding to an earlier time, either as a result of oral tradition, or because the earliest source is a copy of an older manuscript that was lost. An oral tradition of epic poetry may typically bridge a few centuries, and in rare cases, over a millennium. An extreme case is the Vedic Sanskrit of the Rigveda: the earliest parts of this text may date to c. 1500 BC,[1] while the oldest known manuscripts date to c. 1040 AD.[2] Similarly the oldest Avestan texts, the Gathas, are believed to have been composed before 1000 BC, but the oldest Avestan manuscripts date from the 13th century AD.[3]

For languages that have developed out of a known predecessor, dates provided here follow conventional terminology. For example, Old French developed gradually out of Vulgar Latin, and the Oaths of Strasbourg (842) listed are the earliest text that is classified as "Old French".

Before 1000 BC

Writing first appeared in the Near East at the beginning of the 3rd millennium BC. A very limited number of languages are attested in the area from before the Bronze Age collapse and the rise of alphabetic writing:

In East Asia towards the end of the second millennium BC, the Sino-Tibetan family was represented by Old Chinese.

There are also a number of undeciphered Bronze Age records:

Earlier symbols, such as the Jiahu symbols, Vinča symbols and the marks on the Dispilio tablet, are believed to be proto-writing, rather than representations of language.

c. 2690 BCEgyptianEgyptian hieroglyphs in the tomb of Seth-Peribsen (2nd Dynasty), Umm el-Qa'ab[7] "proto-hieroglyphic" inscriptions from about 3300 BC (Naqada III; see Abydos, Egypt, Narmer Palette)
26th century BCSumerianInstructions of Shuruppak, the Kesh temple hymn and other cuneiform texts from Shuruppak and Abu Salabikh (Fara period)[8][9] "proto-literate" period from about 3500 BC (see Kish tablet); administrative records at Uruk and Ur from c. 2900 BC.
c. 2400 BC Canaanite Semitic protective spells attested in an Egyptian inscription in the pyramid of Unas[10][11] Initial attempts at deciphering the texts failed due to Egyptologists mistaking the Semitic spells for Egyptian, thus rendering them unintelligible.
c. 2400 BCAkkadiana few dozen pre-Sargonic texts from Mari and other sites in northern Babylonia[12]Some proper names attested in Sumerian texts at Tell Harmal from about 2800 BC.[13] Fragments of the Legend of Etana at Tell Harmal c. 2600 BC.[14]
c. 2400 BCEblaiteEbla tablets[15]
c. 2250 BCElamiteAwan dynasty peace treaty with Naram-Sin[16][17]
21st century BCHurriantemple inscription of Tish-atal in Urkesh[18]
c. 1700 BCHittiteAnitta text in Hittite cuneiform[19]Isolated Hittite words and names occur in Assyrian texts found at Kültepe, from the 19th century BC.[19]
16th century BCPalaicHittite texts CTH 751–754[20]
c. 1450 BCMycenaean GreekLinear B tablet archive from Knossos[21][22][23]These are mostly administrative lists, with some complete sentences.[24]
c. 1400 BCLuwianHieroglyphic Luwian monumental inscriptions, Cuneiform Luwian tablets in the Hattusa archives[25]Isolated hieroglyphs appear on seals from the 18th century BC.[25]
c. 1400 BCHatticHittite texts CTH 725–745
c. 1300 BCUgaritictablets from Ugarit[26]
c. 1200 BCOld Chineseoracle bone and bronze inscriptions from the reign of Wu Ding[27][28][29]

First millennium BC

The Ahiram epitaph is the earliest substantial inscription in Phoenician.

The earliest known alphabetic inscriptions, at Serabit el-Khadim (c. 1500 BC), appear to record a Northwest Semitic language, though only one or two words have been deciphered. In the Early Iron Age, alphabetic writing spread across the Near East and southern Europe. With the emergence of the Brahmic family of scripts, languages of India are attested from after about 300 BC.

There is only fragmentary evidence for languages such as Iberian, Tartessian, Galatian and Messapian.[31] The North Picene language of the Novilara Stele from c. 600 BC has not been deciphered.[32] The few brief inscriptions in Thracian dating from the 6th and 5th centuries BC have not been conclusively deciphered.[33] The earliest examples of the Central American Isthmian script date from c. 500 BC, but a proposed decipherment remains controversial.[34]

c. 1000 BCPhoenicianAhiram epitaph[35]
10th century BCAramaicroyal inscriptions from Aramean city-states[36]
10th century BCHebrew or PhoenicianGezer calendar[37]Paleo-Hebrew employed a slightly modified Phoenician alphabet, hence the uncertainty between which is attested to here.
c. 850 BCAmmoniteAmman Citadel Inscription[38]
c. 840 BCMoabiteMesha Stele
c. 800 BCPhrygianPaleo-Phrygian inscriptions at Gordion[39]
8th century BCSabaean (Old South Arabian)mainly boustrophedon inscriptions from Yemen[40]
c. 700 BCEtruscanproto-Corinthian vase found at Tarquinia[41]
7th century BCLatinVetusia Inscription and Fibula Praenestina[42]
c. 600 BCLydianinscriptions from Sardis[25]
c. 600 BCCarianinscriptions from Caria and Egypt[25]
c. 600 BCFaliscanCeres inscription found at Falerii[43]
early 6th century BCUmbriantext painted on the handle of a krater found near Tolfa[44]
c. 550 BCTaymaniticEsk 168 and 177[45]The Taymanitic script is mentioned in an 8th century BC document from Carchemish.[46]
c. 550 BCSouth PiceneWarrior of Capestrano[47]
mid-6th century BCVeneticfunerary inscriptions at Este[48]
c. 500 BCOld PersianBehistun inscription
c. 500 BCLeponticinscriptions CO-48 from Pristino (Como) and VA-6 from Vergiate (Varese)[49][50]Inscriptions from the early 6th century consist of isolated names.
c. 300 BCOscanIovilae from Capua[51]Coin legends date from the late 5th century BC.[52]
3rd century BCGaulishTransalpine Gaulish inscriptions in Massiliote Greek script[53]
3rd century BCVolscianTabula Veliterna[54]
c. 260 BCPrakrit (Middle Indo-Aryan)Edicts of Ashoka[55][56]Pottery inscriptions from Anuradhapura have been dated c. 400 BC.[57][58]
early 2nd century BCTamilrock inscription ARE 465/1906 at Mangulam caves, Tamil Nadu[59] (Other authors give dates from late 3rd century BC to 1st century AD.[60][61])5th century BC inscriptions on potsherds found in Kodumanal, Porunthal and Palani have been claimed as Tamil-Brahmi,[62][63] but this is disputed.[64] Pottery fragments dated to the 6th century BC and inscribed with personal names have been found at Keeladi,[65] but the dating is disputed.[66]
2nd century BCMeroiticgraffiti on the temple of Amun at Dukki Gel, near Kerma[67]
c. 146 BCNumidianPunic-Libyan Inscription at Dougga[68]
c. 100 BCCeltiberianBotorrita plaques
1st century BCParthianostraca at Nisa and Qumis[69]
1st century BCSanskritAyodhya Inscription of Dhana, and Hathibada Ghosundi Inscriptions (both near Chittorgarh)[70]The Junagadh rock inscription of Rudradaman (shortly after 150 AD) is the oldest long text.[71]

First millennium AD

From Late Antiquity, we have for the first time languages with earliest records in manuscript tradition (as opposed to epigraphy). Thus, Old Armenian is first attested in the Armenian Bible translation.

The Vimose inscriptions (2nd and 3rd centuries) in the Elder Futhark runic alphabet appear to record Proto-Norse names. Some scholars interpret the Negau helmet inscription (c. 100 BC) as a Germanic fragment.

c. 150BactrianRabatak inscription
c. 200Proto-Norseinscription NITHIJO TAWIDE on shield grip from the Illerup Ådal weapon depositSingle Proto-Norse words are found on the Øvre Stabu spearhead (second half of the 2nd century) and the Vimose Comb (c. 160).
c. 292MayanStela 29 from Tikal[72]A brief undeciphered inscription at San Bartolo is dated to the 3rd century BC.[73]
c. 312–313SogdianAncient Letters, found near Dunhuang[74]
c. 328ArabicNamara inscription
c. 350Ge'ezinscriptions of Ezana of Aksum[75]
c. 350ChamĐông Yên Châu inscription found near Tra Kiêu[76]
4th centuryGothicGothic Bible, translated by Wulfila[77]A few problematic Gothic runic inscriptions may date to the early 4th century.
c. 400Tocharian BTHT 274 and similar manuscripts[78]Some Tocharian names and words have been found in Prakrit documents from Krorän dated c. 300.[79]
c. 430GeorgianBir el Qutt inscriptions[80]
c. 450KannadaHalmidi inscription[81]Kavirajamarga (c. 850) is the oldest literary work.[81]
c. 500Armenianinscription at the Tekor Basilica[82]Saint Mesrob Mashtots is traditionally held to have translated an Armenian Bible in 434.
c. 510Old Dutchformula for freeing a serf in the Malbergse Glossen on the Salic law[83]A word in the mid-5th century Bergakker inscription yields the oldest evidence of Dutch morphology, but there is no consensus on the interpretation of the rest of the text.[83]
second half of 6th centuryOld High GermanPforzen buckle[84]
c. 575TeluguErragudipadu inscription[81]Telugu place names are found in Prakrit inscriptions from the 2nd century AD.[81]
c. 591KoreanSinseong (新城) Stele in Namsan (Gyeongju)[85][86]
c. 611KhmerAngkor Borei inscription K. 557/600[87]
c. 650Old Japanesemokkan wooden tablets[88]Poems in the Kojiki (711–712) and Nihon Shoki (720) have been transmitted in copied manuscripts.
c. 650–700Old UdiSinai palimpsest M13
c. 683Old MalayKedukan Bukit Inscription[89]
7th centuryTumshuqese and Khotanese Sakamanuscripts mainly from Dunhuang[90]Some fragments of Khotanese Saka have been dated to the 5th and 6th centuries
7th centuryBejaostracon from Saqqara[91][92]
late 7th centuryPyuHpayahtaung funeral urn inscription of kings of Sri Ksetra
c. 700Old Englishrunic inscription on the Franks CasketThe Undley bracteate (5th century) and West Heslerton brooch (c. 650) have fragmentary runic inscriptions.
c. 732Old TurkicOrkhon inscriptions
c. 750Old IrishWürzburg glosses[93]Primitive Irish Ogham inscriptions from the 4th century consist of personal names, patronymics and/or clan names.[94][95]
c. 765Old TibetanLhasa Zhol Pillar[96]Dated entries in the Tibetan Annals begin at 650, but extant manuscripts postdate the Tibetan occupation of Dunhuang in 786.[97]
late 8th centuryBretonPraecepta medica (Leyden, Codex Vossianus Lat. F. 96 A)[98]A botanical manuscript in Latin and Breton
c. 750–900Old FrisianWesteremden yew-stick
c. 800Old Norserunic inscriptions
c. 804Javaneseinitial part of the Sukabumi inscription[99]
9th centuryMalayalamVazhappally copper plate[100]Ramacaritam (12th century) is the oldest literary work.[100]
9th centuryOld WelshCadfan Stone (Tywyn 2)[101]
c. 842Old FrenchOaths of Strasbourg
c. 882Balinesedated royal inscription[102]
c. 900Old OccitanTomida femina
c. 959–974LeoneseNodicia de Kesos
c. 960–963ItalianPlaciti Cassinesi[103]The Veronese Riddle (c. 800) is considered a mixture of Italian and Latin.[104]
c. 986KhitanMemorial for Yelü Yanning
late 10th centuryOld Church SlavonicKiev MissalCyril and Methodius translated religious literature from c. 862, but only later manuscripts survive.
late 10th centuryKonkani/Marathiinscription on the Gommateshwara statue[105]The inscription is in Devanagari script, but the language has been disputed between Marathi and Konkani scholars.[106][107]

1000–1500 AD

c. 972–1093SloveneFreising manuscripts
10th centuryRomansha sentence in the Würzburg manuscript[108]
c. 1000Old East SlavicNovgorod Codex[109]
c. 1000Basque, AragoneseGlosas Emilianenses
c. 1028CatalanJurament Feudal[110]
11th centuryMozarabickharjas appended to Arabic and Hebrew poems[111]Isolated words are found in glossaries from the 8th century.[112]
c. 1100CroatianBaška tablet
c. 1100OssetianZelančuk inscription[113]
c. 1106IrishLebor na hUidre ("Book of the Dun Cow")
c. 1113BurmeseMyazedi inscription
c. 1114Newarpalm-leaf manuscript from Uku Baha, Patan[114]
c. 1138–1153Jurchenstele in Kyongwon[115]Aisin-Gioro Ulhicun has identified an inscription found on the Arkhara River as Jurchen and dated it to 1127.
c. 1160–1170Middle DutchHet Leven van Sint Servaes ("Life of Saint Servatius") by Heinrich von Veldeke[116]
c. 1175Galician-PortugueseNotícia de Fiadores[117]The Notícia de Torto and the will of Afonso II of Portugal, dated 1214, are often cited as the first documents written in Galician-Portuguese.[118] A date prior to 1175 has been proposed for the Pacto dos Irmãos Pais.[119]
c. 1186–1190SerbianMiroslav Gospel
c. 1189BosnianCharter of Ban Kulin
c. 1192Old HungarianFuneral Sermon and PrayerThere are isolated fragments in earlier charters such as the charter of Veszprém (c. 1000) and the charter of Tihany (1055).
c. 1200SpanishCantar de mio CidPreviously the Glosas Emilianenses and the Nodicia de kesos were considered the oldest texts in Spanish; however, later analyses concluded them to be Aragonese and Leonese, respectively.[120]
c. 1200FinnicBirch bark letter no. 292
c. 1200–1230Czechfounding charter of the Litoměřice chapter
c. 1224–1225MongolianGenghis stone
early 13th centuryPunjabipoetry of Fariduddin Ganjshakar
early 13th centuryCornishprophesy in the cartulary of Glasney College[121]A 9th century gloss in De Consolatione Philosophiae by Boethius: ud rocashaas is controversially interpreted.[122][123]
c. 1250KashmiriMahanayakaprakash ("Light of the supreme lord") by Shitikantha[124]
c. 1270Old PolishBook of Henryków
c. 1272Yiddishblessing in the Worms mahzor
c. 1274Western LombardLiber di Tre Scricciur, by Bonvesin de la Riva
c. 1292ThaiRamkhamhaeng steleSome scholars argue that the stele is a forgery.
13th centuryTigrinyaa text of laws found in Logosarda
c. 1350Oghuz Turkic (including Azeri and Ottoman Turkish)Imadaddin Nasimi
c. 1369Old PrussianBasel Epigram[125]
c. 1372KomiAbur inscriptions
early 15th centuryBengali, Assamese and other Bengali-Assamese languagespoems of Chandidas[126]The 10th-century Charyapada are written in a language ancestral to Bengali, Assamese and Oriya.[126]
c. 1440VietnameseQuốc âm thi tập[127]Isolated names in Chữ nôm date from the early 13th century.
c. 1462AlbanianFormula e pagëzimit, a baptismal formula in a letter of Archbishop Pal EngjëllSome scholars interpret a few lines in the Bellifortis text (1405) as Albanian.[128]
c. 1470Finnishsingle sentence in a German travel journal[129]The first printed book in Finnish is Abckiria (1543) by Mikael Agricola.
c. 1470MalteseIl Cantilena
c. 1485Yibronze bell inscription in Dafang County, Guizhou[130]
15th centuryTuluinscriptions in an adaptation of Malayam script[131]

After 1500

c. 1503Lithuanianhand-written Lord's Prayer, Hail Mary and Creed[132]Katekizmas (1547) by Martynas Mažvydas was the first printed book in Lithuanian.
c. 1517BelarusianPsalter of Francysk Skaryna
c. 1521RomanianNeacșu's LetterCyrillic orthographic manual of Constantin Kostentschi from 1420 documents earlier written usage.[133] Four 16th century documents, namely Codicele Voronetean, Psaltirea Scheiana, Psaltirea Hurmuzachi and Psaltirea Voroneteana, are arguably copies of 15th century originals.[134]
c. 1530LatvianNicholas Ramm's translation of a hymn
c. 1535EstonianWanradt-Koell catechism
c. 1536Modern PortugueseGrammatica da lingoagem portuguesa by Fernão de convention.[135]
c. 1549SylhetiTalib Husan by Ghulam Husanearliest extant manuscript found using the Sylheti Nagri script.[136]
c. 1550Classical NahuatlDoctrina cristiana en lengua española y mexicana[137]The Breve y mas compendiosa doctrina cristiana en lengua mexicana y castellana (1539) was possibly the first printed book in the New World. No copies are known to exist today.[137]
c. 1550Standard DutchStatenbijbelThe Statenbijbel is commonly accepted to be the start of Standard Dutch, but various experiments were performed around 1550 in Flanders and Brabant. Although none proved to be lasting they did create a semi-standard and many formed the base for the Statenbijbel.
c. 1554Wastekgrammar by Andrés de Olmos
c. 1557Kikongoa catechism[138]
c. 1561UkrainianPeresopnytsia Gospel
c. 1593TagalogDoctrina Cristiana
c. 1600Classical QuechuaHuarochirí Manuscript by a writer identified only as "Thomás"[139]Paraphrased and annotated by Francisco de Ávila in 1608.
c. 1600Buginese
c. 1610ManxBook of Common Prayer[140]
c. 1619Pite Samiprimer and missal by Nicolaus Andreaus[141]Early literary works were mainly based on dialects underlying modern Ume Sami and Pite Sami. First grammar and dictionary in 1738.
c. 1638Ternatetreaty with Dutch governor[142]
c. 1639GuaraniTesoro de la lengua guaraní by Antonio Ruíz de Montoya
c. 1650Ubykh, Abkhaz, Adyghe and MingrelianTravel Book of Evliya Çelebi[143]
c. 1651Pashtocopy of Xayru 'l-bayān in the library of the University of Tübingen[144]The Pata Khazana, purporting to date from the 8th century, is considered by most scholars to be a forgery.[144]
c. 1663MassachusettMamusse Wunneetupanatamwe Up-Biblum GodAlso known as the Eliot Indian Bible or the Algonquian Bible
c. 1693Tunisian Arabiccopy of a Tunisian poem written by Sheykh Hassan el-Karray [145]Before 1700, lyrics of songs were not written in Tunisian Arabic but in Classical Arabic.[145]
c. 1695Serigrammar and vocabulary compiled by Adamo GilgNo longer known to exist.[146]
17th centuryHausaRiwayar Annabi Musa by Abdallah Suka[147]
18th centuryLíngua Geral of São PauloVocabulário da Língua Geral dos Índios das Américas (anonymous)[148]Another source is the dictionary by Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius (1867) and the vocabulary (1936) by José Joaquim Machado de Oliveira. The language is now extinct.
c. 1711Swahililetters written in Kilwa[149]
c. 1728Northern SamiCatechismAn early wordlist was published in 1589 by Richard Hakluyt. First grammar in 1743
c. 1736GreenlandicGrönländische Grammatica by Paul Egede[150]A poor-quality wordlist was recorded by John Davis in 1586.[151]
c. 1743Chinese Pidgin Englishsentence recorded in Macau by George Anson[152]
c. 1757Haitian Creole Lisette quitté la plaine by Duvivier de la Mahautière[153][154]
c. 1788Sydney languagenotebooks of William Dawes[155][156]
c. 1795Afrikaansdoggerel verses[157]
c. 1800Inuktitut"Eskimo Grammar" by Moravian missionaries[150]A list of 17 words was recorded in 1576 by Christopher Hall, an assistant to Martin Frobisher.[150][151]
c. 1806TswanaHeinrich LictensteinUpon the Language of the BeetjuanaThe first complete Bible translation was published in 1857 by Robert Moffat.
c. 1819CherokeeSequoyah's Cherokee syllabary
c. 1820Maorigrammar by Thomas Kendall and Samuel LeeKendal began compiling wordlists in 1814.
c. 1820Aleutdescription by Rasmus RaskA short word list was collected by James King in 1778.
c. 1823XhosaJohn Bennie's Xhosa reading sheetComplete Bible translation 1859
c. 1833VaiVai syllabary created by Momolu Duwalu Bukele.
c. 1833Sothoreduced to writing by French missionaries Casalis and ArboussetFirst grammar book 1841 and complete Bible translation 1881
c. 1837ZuluIncwadi Yokuqala YabafundayoFirst grammar book 1859 and complete Bible translation 1883
c. 1839Lule Samipamphlet by Lars Levi LaestadiusDictionary and grammar by Karl Bernhard Wiklund in 1890-1891
c. 1845SantaliA Santali Primer by Jeremiah Phillips[158]
c. 1851Sakha (Yakut)Über die Sprache der Jakuten, a grammar by Otto von BöhtlingkWordlists were included in Noord en Oost Tartarije (1692) by Nicolaas Witsen and Das Nord-und Ostliche Theil von Europa und Asia (1730) by Philip Johan von Strahlenberg.
c. 1854Inari Samigrammar by Elias LönnrotPrimer and catechism published in 1859.
c. 1856Gamilaraayarticles by William Ridley[159]Basic vocabulary collected by Thomas Mitchell in 1832.
c. 1872Vendareduced to writing by the Berlin MissionariesFirst complete Bible translation 1936
c. 1878Kildin SamiGospel of Matthew
c. 1882MirandeseO dialecto mirandez by José Leite de Vasconcelos[160]The same author also published the first book written in Mirandese: Flores mirandezas (1884)[161]
c. 1884Skolt SamiGospel of Matthew in Cyrillic
c. 1885CarrierBarkerville Jail Text, written in pencil on a board in the then recently created Carrier syllabicsAlthough the first known text by native speakers dates to 1885, the first record of the language is a list of words recorded in 1793 by Alexander MacKenzie.
c. 1885Motugrammar by W.G. Lawes
c. 1886Guugu Yimidhirrnotes by Johann Flierl, Wilhelm Poland and Georg Schwarz, culminating in Walter Roth's The Structure of the Koko Yimidir Language in 1901.[162][163]A list of 61 words recorded in 1770 by James Cook and Joseph Banks was the first written record of an Australian language.[164]
c. 1891Galelagrammatical sketch by M.J. van Baarda[165]
c. 1893Oromotranslation of the New Testament by Onesimos Nesib, assisted by Aster Ganno
c. 1903Lingalagrammar by Egide de Boeck
c. 1905Istro-RomanianCalindaru lu rumeri din Istrie by Andrei Glavina and Constantin Diculescu[166]Compilation of Istro-Romanian popular words, proverbs and stories.[166]
c. 1940Kamoromaterials by Peter Drabbe[165]A Kamoro wordlist recorded in 1828 by Modera and Müller, passengers on a Dutch ship, is the oldest record of any of the non-Austronesian languages of New Guinea.[165][167]
c. 1968Southern Ndebelesmall booklet published with praises of their kings and a little historyA translation of the New Testament of the Bible was completed in 1986; translation of the Old Testament is ongoing.
c. 1984Gooniyandisurvey by William McGregor[168]

By family

Attestation by major language family:

Constructed languages

1879Volapükcreated by Johann Martin Schleyer
1887EsperantoUnua Librocreated by L. L. Zamenhof
1907Idobased on Esperanto
1917Quenyacreated by J. R. R. Tolkien
1928Novialcreated by Otto Jespersen
1935SonaSona, an auxiliary neutral languagecreated by Kenneth Searight
1943InterglossaLater became Glosacreated by Lancelot Hogben
1951InterlinguaInterlingua-English Dictionarycreated by the International Auxiliary Language Association
1955Loglancreated by James Cooke Brown
1984KlingonStar Trek III: The Search for Spockcreated by Marc Okrand
1987Lojbanbased on Loglan, created by the Logical Language Group
2001AtlanteanAtlantis: The Lost Empirecreated by Marc Okrand
2005–6Na'viAvatarcreated by Dr. Paul Frommer and James Cameron
2009Dothrakicreated by George R. R. Martin and David J. Peterson for Game of Thrones
2013KilikiBaahubali: The Beginning, Baahubali 2: The Conclusioncreated by Madhan Karky for Baahubali: The Beginning

See also


  1. Jamison, Stephanie W. (2008). "Sanskrit". In Woodward, Roger D. (ed.). The Ancient Languages of Asia and the Americas. Cambridge University Press. pp. 6–32. ISBN 978-0-521-68494-1. pp. 6–7.
  2. Witzel, Michael (1997). "The Development of the Vedic Canon and its Schools : The Social and Political Milieu" (PDF). In Witzel, Michael (ed.). Inside the Texts, Beyond the Texts. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Department of Sanskrit and Indian Studies. pp. 257–348. ISBN 978-1-888789-03-4. p. 259.
  3. Hale, Mark (2008). "Avestan". In Woodward, Roger D. (ed.). The Ancient Languages of Asia and the Americas. Cambridge University Press. pp. 101–122. ISBN 978-0-521-68494-1.
  4. Woodard (2008), p. 2.
  5. "Linear A – Undeciphered Writing System of the Minoans". 2013-07-13. Retrieved 2013-09-17.
  6. Woodard (2008), p. 3.
  7. Allen, James P. (2003). The Ancient Egyptian Language. Cambridge University Press. p. 2. ISBN 978-1-107-66467-8.
  8. Hayes, John (1990). A Manual of Sumerian: Grammar and Texts. Malibu, CA.: UNDENA. pp. 268–269. ISBN 978-0-89003-197-1.
  9. Woods (2010), p. 87.
  10. "Earliest Semitic Text Revealed In Egyptian Pyramid Inscription". ScienceDaily. Retrieved 2019-01-06.
  11. "לחשים בקדם־כנענית בכתבי הפירמידות: סקירה ראשונה של תולדות העברית באלף השלישי לפסה"נ | האקדמיה ללשון העברית". (in Hebrew). 2013-05-21. Retrieved 2019-01-06.
  12. Hasselbach, Rebecca (2005). Sargonic Akkadian: A Historical and Comparative Study of the Syllabic Texts. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 8. ISBN 978-3-447-05172-9.
  13. Andrew George, "Babylonian and Assyrian: A History of Akkadian", In: Postgate, J. N., (ed.), Languages of Iraq, Ancient and Modern. London: British School of Archaeology in Iraq, pp. 31–71.
  14. Clay, Albert T. (2003). Atrahasis: An Ancient Hebrew Deluge Story. Book Tree. p. 34. ISBN 978-1-58509-228-4.
  15. Huehnergard, John; Woods, Christopher (2008). "Akkadian and Eblaite". In Woodard, Roger D. (ed.). The Ancient Languages of Mesopotamia, Egypt and Aksum. Cambridge University Press. pp. 83–145. ISBN 978-0-521-68497-2.
  16. Stolper, Matthew W. (2008). "Elamite". In Woodard, Roger D. (ed.). The Ancient Languages of Mesopotamia, Egypt and Aksum. Cambridge University Press. pp. 47–82. ISBN 978-0-521-68497-2.
  17. Potts, D.T. (1999). The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State. Cambridge University Press. p. 111. ISBN 978-0-521-56496-0.
  18. van Soldt, Wilfred H. (2010). "The adaptation of Cuneiform script to foreign languages". In De Voogt, Alexander J.; Finkel, Irving L. (eds.). The Idea of Writing: Play and Complexity. BRILL. pp. 117–128. ISBN 978-90-04-17446-7.
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